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, to discover things afar off, read letters and inscriptions on coins at a distance, and tell what was passing seven miles off. Such is the claim in his son's book, second edition, published in 1591. Jansen (about 1608), a spectacle-maker of Middleburg, Holland, was struck by the effect of a concave and a convex lens held in the proper relation and distance. For the purpose of observation, he fixed the glasses on a board in proper position, and afterwards in a tube. He seems to have considered it interesting but not valuable, and Prince Maurice of Nassau became possessed of it. Lippersheim, also of Middleburg, seems to have been concerned in it in some way. Another claimant of the invention about the same date is Metius, who was a glass-cutter, and casually observed the effect of a concave and convex lens held in line in the hands. The three latter claimants had their supporters as the authors of the invention. Descartes, who lived near the time, supported the claims of