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tal are of 180°. Two lamps are used alternately, the carbon-points lasting four hours. Expense, twenty cents per hour. E-lec′tric log. An electric circuit through the log-line to the detent of an escapement in the register-log, so that by touching a key on deck a circuit may be completed, an armature attracted, and thus the starting and stopping of the mechanical register in the log be exactly timed. See log. E-lec′tric loom. In 1852 an electric loom was exhibited by Bonelli at Turin. The invention was at that time in a crude state, but has since been much improved. The object is to dispense with the perforated cards required in the Jacquard apparatus. For this purpose, an endless band of paper covered with tin-foil is used, on which the required pattern is traced with a varnish, rendering the parts thus covered nonconducting. This band is caused to pass under a series of thin metallic teeth, each connected with a small electromagnet, which operate a series of pist
soda and sulphuric acid. The resulting sulphate is scraped out after removing the end of the retort. In the gallery-furnace the retorts are sunk in sandpots whose lower surfaces are exposed to the heat of the furnace fire. Ni-trine′. An explosive compound patented by Nobel, August 14, 1866; formed of glycerine, sulphuric and nitric acids, free of hypo-nitric acid. Ni′tro-gly′cerine. Nitrolcum, glonoin, or blasting-oil. Discovered by Sobreso, professor of applied chemistry at Turin, in 1847, and introduced into this country in 1864 by Nobel, a Swedish engineer. An oily liquid of a specific gravity of 1.6, having a sweet aromatic taste, colorless when pure, but, as manufactured, it is usually light yellow. If heated up to 100°, no change takes place; heated gradually to 193°, it is decomposed, losing its explosive power. When not under pressure it burns quietly. Heating when confined may create a partial decomposition, and an explosion from the pressure thus gene
s daily to each person. Buffalo61 gallons daily to each person. Cleveland40 gallons daily to each person. Columbus30 gallons daily to each person. Montreal, Canada55 gallons daily to each person. Toronto77 gallons daily to each person. London, England29 gallons daily to each person. Liverpool23 gallons daily to each person. Glasgow50 gallons daily to each person. Edinburgh38 gallons daily to each person. Dublin25 gallons daily to each person. Paris28 gallons daily to each person. Turin22 gallons daily to each person. Toulouse26 gallons daily to each person. Lyons20 gallons daily to each person. Leghorn30 gallons daily to each person. Berlin20 gallons daily to each person. Hamburg33 gallons daily to each person. The first water-works in the United States were planned and constructed by Mr. John Christopher Christensen, at Bethlehem, Pa., in 1762. The machinery consisted of three singleacting force-pumps, of 4-inch caliber and 18-inch stroke, and worked by a triple