b b, and rotated by the cord which connects the end of the spring-pole with the treadle c. The chisel rests upon the bar.
The earliest screw-lathe known is one described in the work of Jaques Besson (see Plate 9 of that work) published at Lyons, France, in the year 1578.
This curious lathe, which is also illustrated and described on page 616, Vol.
II., Holtzapffel's Turning and mechanical manipulation, has its tool traversed alongside the work by means of a guide-screw, which is moved simability to mistakes, deranging the pattern, and to obviate this a mechanical drawboy was invented.
Jacquard's ingenious invention superseded this, producing an entire revolution in the art of figureweaving.
Joseph Maria Jacquard was born at Lyons, 1752; invented his loom for weaving figured fabrics in 1801; and died at Orleans in 1834.
The action of the Jacquard in producing patterns upon fabric may be briefly described as follows: —
To the ordinary looms perforated cards are added,
Birkenshaw's malleable face upon a cast base, 1820.
Birkenshaw, of Bedlington, Durham, invented the rolled rail; the iron, while hot, being passed between grooved rollers of the required pattern (i j k l).
m n o p are respectively the Spanish, Marseilles, Strasburg, and Great Western (England) patterns.
q, Durham and Sunderland, England.
r, Berlin and Potsdam, Prussia.
s, London and Blackwall, England.
t, Manchester and Birmingham, England.
u, Saint-Etienne to Lyon, France.
v, Wilmington and Susquehanna, United States.
w, Great Western (Old), England.
x, London and Croydon, England, which first dispensed
Railway-rails. with longitudinal sleepers and chairs.
y, Morris and Prevost, England.
z, Birmingham and Gloucester, England.
a′, London and Birmingham, England.
b′, London and Brighton, England.
c′, Midland counties, England.
d′, contractor's rail.
e′, street-car rail.
f′, locomotive street-rail.