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ixty yards in front of the object fired at, so as to scatter the bullets over a considerable space. This, under favorable circumstances, is a very efficient projectile, and would be still more so were it possible to cut the fuse to such exactness as to always explode just at the desired point. The shot are sometimes placed in a tin cylinder with a wooden sabot, and used without a fuse at ranges of 300 yards. This is distinctively known as canister. Case—wind′ing watch. Theurer, of Switzerland (United States patent, February 6, 1866), has a watch so constructed that the opening of the cover winds up the works. It cannot be overwound. Guizot, April 12, ′1870, rotates the case on its pintle, to wind the watch. Case—work. (Bookbinding.) A book glued on the back and stuck into a cover previously prepared. Cash′er—box. (Glass-manufacture.) A table covered with coal cinders, on which the globe of glass is rested while the blowing-tube is detached and a ro
the cartridge contained in the carrier-block into the chamber, drops the carrier-block to receive the following cartridge from the magazine, and places the arm in readiness to be fired. The United States has adopted the Springfield. England adopts Snider's improvement on the Enfield. France, the Chassepot. Belgium, the Albini. Holland, the Snider. Turkey, the Remington and Winchester. Austria, the Wanzl. Sweden, the Hagstrom. Russia, the Laidley and Berdan. Switzerland, the Winchester. Portugal, the Westley-Richards. Prussia, the needle-gun. The well-known form shown at C, Plate 14, has been superseded by the Mauser gun. See needle-gun. The breech-loaders purchased by the American government between January 1, 1861, and January 30, 1866, were of number and kind as follows: — Ballard1,500Maynard20,002 Ball1,002Palmer1,001 Burnside,55,567Remington20,000 Cosmopolitan9,342Sharps80,512 Gallagher22,728Smith30,062 Gibbs1,052Spencer94,156 Ha
ven levels. If of glass, they are usually impressed in the mold; if of porcelain, they are painted on the ware before burning. Grad′u-ated-glass. A tube with a foot, and with horizontal marks at varying hights to indicate quantity of contents. A measuring-glass. Grad′u-ator. An apparatus in which a solution is allowed to trickle over a large extent of surface, during which it is exposed to a current of air. This is adopted in the salt-works of Montiers, in the Tarantaise, Switzerland, where brine having 1.83 percent of saline matter is condensed to such a degree of saturation as to be profitably evaporated by boiling. It is trickled over fagots of thorns placed in frames, and acquires a density of 22 per cent. Another plan is to let it trickle over suspended ropes upon which it crystallizes and is broken off. The ropes last twenty-five years; the fagots, seven years. Graduator. Vinegar is manufactured by exposing a large surface to oxidation in a similar man
lroad buildings and bridges are of iron, and come from England, as do the rails; the ties are from Oregon, the locomotives and cars from the United States. The plate opposite is a view of the Furka pass and the Rhone glacier, Canton Valais, Switzerland. The winding road is shown in the view, climbing up a spur of the mountain, which is immediately west of Mt. St. Gothard. See also views in Lippincott's magazine, Vol. VIII. p. 324; and London Engineer, Vol. XXXII., 1871, p. 233. The loonkan, or flat country of Bombay, by the Western Ghauts to the table-land of the Deccan, is known as the Bhore Ghaut incline, in which the railway rises from the plain 2,000 feet in a series of steps 16 miles in length. The Righi Railway in Switzerland rises by a locomotive of peculiar form 1,170 feet in traversing 4,700. The boiler, furnace, and carriage are inclined so as to present a level floor on the slope. The inclined plane or railway of Mt. Washington is familiar to many tourists
lond, and Roget were instructed to pursue the inquiry. The excise system of England at that time sat like a foul bird upon all the nests where glass was hatched, and prevented the experiments, tying the hands of this noble quarternion of philosophers with a few yards of red tape applied by some seedylooking individual, with a pen behind his ear and no speculation in his eye. Munich at last carried the palm; her skill being originally derived from Guinand, a poor peasant of Neufchatel, Switzerland, who was brought up to the watch-trade. He made experiments, and gradually shifted himself into the manufacture of optical instruments, finally allying himself with Utzschneider and Frauenhofer of Munich, whose establishment yet has a world-wide reputation: he succeeded in soldering glass. Pure disks of flint-glass were exhibited in London in 1851, having a diameter of 29 inches and weighing 224 pounds. Guinand's mode of making lenses is stated by Mr. Pellatt to have consisted in sti
, furniture, dress, habits, and medicines, was also her mistress in the ceramic art. Geodetical models, in which the contour of the earth is shown in relief, are among the most interesting of all geographical representations. The mountains of Switzerland were modeled in miniature, by General Pfiffer. In modeling a tract of country, it is usual, as in plotting a profile of a route, to exaggerate the hights to make them more observable. With such vast precipices and eminences as Switzerland afSwitzerland affords, the necessity for vertical exaggeration is not so great; but it is apparent that in a modeled map of a country 200 miles square, having no elevation exceeding 1,760 feet, a rise of 1/3 of an inch on a surface 16 feet square (one inch to the mile) would not be readily seen. The insignificance of the elevations on the earth's crust, compared with the area of the surface, is not generally appreciated, and it is common in plotting profiles of routes as in modeling the superficies, to give t
238 MexicoLegua4,638 MilanMigliio1,093.63 MochaMile2,146 NaplesMiglio2,025 NetherlandsMijle1,093.63 Place.Measure.U. S. Yards. NorwayMile12,182 PersiaParasang6,076 PolandMile (long)8,100 PortugalMitha2,250 PortugalVara3.609 PrussiaMile (post)8,238 RomeKilometre1,093.63 RomeMile2,025 RussiaVerst1,166.7 RussiaSashine2.33 SardiniaMiglio2,435 SaxonyMeile (post)7,432 SiamRoenung4,333 SpainLeague legal4,638 SpainLeague, common6,026.24 SpainMilla1,522 SwedenMile11,660 SwitzerlandMeile8,548 TurkeyBerri1,828 TuscanyMiglio1,809 VeniceMiglio1,900 O-don′ta-gra. A form of dental forceps. O-don′to-graph. (Gearing.) An instrument for marking or laying off the teeth of gear-wheels; invented by Professor Willis. It consists of a graduated card or thin board, having one edge beveled at an angle of 75°. This is applied to the radii terminating at the centers of the interspaces between the teeth and the centers from which the curves forming their flanks and
mining or tunneling, but this is more than compensated by the cooling and ventilation effected by the exhaust. The cylinder, with its working apparatus, is rotatable vertically on trunnions for varying the direction of the blows given by the drill By the pneumatic drill, the Mt. Cenis Tunnel, seven miles in length, was bored through the Alps. The Hoosac Tunnel in Massachusetts, five miles in length, was cut by the same means. Compressed air is also used in the St. Gothard Tunnel in Switzerland, lately commenced, which is to be 13 miles in length; and also in the operations at Hell-Gate, East River, N. Y. Sec submarine excavation; tunnel. Pneu-mat′ic El′e-va′tor. A hoisting device in which compressed air is the agent for lifting. See pneumatic hoist; furnace-hoist. In planing-mills, the pneumatic method is used to carry the shavings from the planers to the furnaces of the steam-boilers; in grain and wool houses, to convey the stock. Pneu-mat′ic Ham′mer. A ha
ises up the mountain-side to a station at Staffelhohe, which is above the hotel and bath establishment, called Rigi Kaltbad, and well known to most travelers in Switzerland. The length of the line is 5,760 yards (about 3 1/4 miles), and the hight of the upper terminus above the lower is 3,937 feet, being an average ascending gradias to produce an apparently continuous sound See also Atmospheric railway.Portable railway. Elevated railway.Wire-way, etc. Pneumatic tube. Rigi Railway, Switzerland. Rail′way-brake. (Railroad-engineering.) The old-fashioned hand-brake is still used on some lines of railway, but is gradually being superseded by poweance. A great number of the improvements in the different branches of the manufacture are due to the Swiss and Germans, among others the bar-loom, brought from Switzerland, in 1756, by M. Flachat, of Saint-Chamond, and the economical processes for fining velvet, introduced in 1775, by Roland de la Platiere. The application to t
The brine which supplies the salt-works of Moutiers, in the Tarantaise, Switzerland, has only 1.83 per cent of saline matter, 1 1/2 pounds to 13 gallons of wateich logs are driven to a lower level. The timber slides of the Alpnach in Switzerland are remarkable. The log chutes of the Ottawa occur occasionally on 200 min invented in the fifteenth century. Montaigne describes one he met with in Switzerland in 1580. It is noticed in a book on Cookery, by Scippi, cook to Pius V. in s, in addition to its own weight, without injury. The bridge at Fribourg in Switzerland was opened for travel, August 23, 1834; its span from pier to pier is 880 fefrom a Saxon tomb, England; b, bronze sword from Ireland; c, from Sweden; e, Switzerland: f, Neufchatel; g, Scandinavia; g h i j k, Denmark. For the sake of compa-heads from Ireland n o, Irish bronze daggers. p q, bronze knives from Switzerland. r, bronze razor-knife from Denmark. The Egyptian sword was straight a
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