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companies from Frederick City, Md., under Colonel Shriver, arrived; later came companies from Baltimore, under Gen. C. C. Edgerton, and a detachment of United States marines, commanded by Lieut. J. Green and Major Russell, accompanied by Lieut.-Col. R. E. Lee, of the Second United States cavalry (with his aide, Lieut. J. E. B. Stuart, of the First United States cavalry), who, happening to be at Arlington, his home, near Washington, had been ordered to take command at Harper's Ferry, recapture appeared upon the scenes of these opening hostilities between the North and the South, and who subsequently became famous or celebrated characters in the great drama of the civil war. Among those who became Confederate generals were: S. Cooper, R. E. Lee, J. E. B. Stuart, John B. Floyd and Henry A. Wise; and among colonels, C. J. Faulkner and A. R. Boteler. In the committee of the United States Senate, appointed by resolution of December 14, 1859, to inquire into the facts attending this invas
he military organizations of the State, the enlargement of the Virginia military institute, and the purchase of munitions of war. The general assembly invited Col. R. E. Lee, of the United States army, who was at Arlington on furlough, to come to Richmond and give advice concerning the organizing of the Virginia militia. By offdered to assemble at Norfolk for the purpose of capturing the Gosport navy yard. The same day, at the instance of General Scott, President Lincoln offered to Col. R. E. Lee the command of the United States army intended for the invasion of Virginia. On the 20th Colonel Lee resigned his commission in the United States army, and ohis headquarters at Grafton, where the two branches of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad diverge, the one to Wheeling and the other to Parkersburg. On the 10th Maj.-Gen. R. E. Lee was assigned to the command of all the Confederate forces serving in Virginia. On the 23d of May the Virginia ordinance of secession was ratified, by a p
mond, and to the same objective by the James; (3) by way of the Cumberland valley, from Harrisburg through Chambersburg into the Shenandoah valley and the adjacent Potomac valleys to the west; (4) from Ohio into western Virginia, by the line of the Great Kanawha valley toward Staunton, in the center of the State, and simultaneously from Wheeling and Parkersburg along the Baltimore & Ohio eastward to Grafton, and thence southeastward, also to Staunton. To meet these threatened movements, Gen. R. E. Lee, when Governor Letcher's call for troops was issued, began to organize opposing columns of defense in the vicinity of Norfolk, in front of Alexandria and Washington, at Harper's Ferry in the Shenandoah valley, at Grafton on the Baltimore & Ohio, and below Charleston in the Kanawha valley, with intermediate forces in observation between these points, thus establishing a cordon around the great length of the exposed boundaries of the State. The concentration of Federal troops at points
ter-general of the United States army. This action of Virginia was not known in Washington until Saturday, the 19th, when he at once wrote his resignation. On Monday morning he offered it to the secretary of war, who accepted it. That done, he left Washington on Tuesday, with his family, for Richmond, but in consequence of railway accidents did not reach there until Thursday the 25th, when Governor Letcher at once gave him the appointment of major-general of Virginia volunteers, and Maj.-Gen. R. E. Lee, who had been appointed commander-in-chief of the Virginia forces on the 22d, assigned to him the duty of organizing and instructing the volunteers who were then arriving in Richmond. General Lee had already selected the points to be occupied for the defense of the State and the number of troops to be assigned to each. These points were: Norfolk, in front of Yorktown; the front of Fredericksburg; Manassas Junction, Harper's Ferry and Grafton. Johnston was assisted in the duties ass
The council advised the acceptance of this offer, and that orders be immediately given to remove all ordnance from the navy yard, not necessary for its defense and that of Norfolk and Portsmouth, to safe points in the interior. Early in May, Gen. R. E. Lee was assigned to the command of volunteer troops ordered to the battery on Jamestown island. Gov. I. G. Harris, of Tennessee, asked the governor of Virginia for artillery for the defense of the Mississippi and the Cumberland and Tennessee rhis Lee replied that if that place should be besieged, measures would be taken for its relief; that no siege guns were then available for it, and that reinforcements would be sent as rapidly as the arrival of available troops would permit. Gen. R. E. Lee, commanding, furnished, June 15th, to Governor Letcher, a statement of the military and naval preparations Virginia had made for her defense, from the date of her separation from the United States government to the date of the transfer of the
esults of military operations in northwestern Virginia and the constant appeals from the leading men of. that region to be rid of Federal domination, induced Gen. R. E. Lee, the Confederate general-in-chief, to take the field in person and give general oversight to military affairs on the Kanawha and Beverly lines, by each of whioned at Beverly, Elkwater and Cheat mountain. There are no official returns of the Confederate strength. Long, who was in a position to know, in his Memoirs of R. E. Lee, states that Loring's force was 6,000 and Jackson's 5,000; and that Reynolds had 2,000 in front of Jackson and 5,000 in front of Loring. So the opposing armies in and capturing the enemy's pickets on the fronts examined and exhibiting that readiness for attack, gives assurance of victory when a fit opportunity offers. R. E. Lee, General Commanding. Gen. A. L. Long, in his Memoirs, referring to Colonel Rust's attack of September 12th, writes: It was anxiously expected from early
nder Lee, had accomplished nothing in the same valley and in that of the Greenbrier in August and September, and the commands of Floyd and Wise along the Kanawha turnpike, even with the assistance of Lee and Loring, had barely sufficed to keep the enemy in check. The first campaign in the Kanawha valley, under General Wise, has been described in this volume. The later operations in that region, in 1861, under the command of General Floyd, and at the last, about Sewell mountain, under Gen. R. E. Lee, are described in the Military History of West Virginia, in another volume of this work. To that volume reference is also made for accounts of subsequent military operations within the limits of the State of West Virginia, except such as were part of the campaigns of the army of Northern Virginia. When Jackson took command in the Valley the advance of General Rosecrans, who commanded the Federal forces in West Virginia, had recaptured Romney, 40 miles west of Winchester, and held i
ing a change of base and of plan of campaign, Gen. Robert E. Lee took command, under President Davis, of all tg during the preceding eight months, the prospect for Lee, although he held the inner circle and the shorter liis command; while on the extreme left of the sweep of Lee's line of defense, Edward Johnson held the Fort Johns00 men, the heroes of the Alleghany mountain battle. Lee's whole muster was only about 75,000 to meet the convments. McClellan's plan of campaign was to hold back Lee's widely-scattered forces by the armies of observatioer, pushed rapidly forward to capture Richmond before Lee could there concentrate men enough to successfully imthere were abundant reasons why he should succeed. Lee, the acknowledged first soldier of the old Federal art soon meet and contend with. But there entered into Lee's calculations factors and forces that are mightier t Apprised by McClellan's movements of his intentions, Lee increased and strengthened the defenses of Richmond a
carnage. During this haphazard fighting Smith did nothing on the left, fearing to provoke McClellan to move across the Chickahominy in force to the assistance of his three crops that had been engaged in the pending contest; so the fighting came to an end, the Federals remaining in the lines to which they had been forced back the day before, and the Confederates collecting arms and caring for their wounded. About two of the afternoon of June 1st, after the strife of the day was over, Gen. R. E. Lee, accompanied by President Davis, rode upon the field and relieved Maj.-Gen. G. W. Smith, thus taking command of the army of Northern Virginia, to which the President had assigned him, and which he from that time held for nearly three years, until the surrender of April 9, 1865. Lee at once directed the withdrawal of the Confederate forces, the divisions of Longstreet and Hill to their camps near the city, leaving those of Huger and Smith to hold the advance. This was accomplished durin
l Jones [Longstreet's right], but no serious attack was made. While the battle was raging on Jackson's left General Longstreet ordered Hood and Evans to advance, but before the order could be obeyed Hood was himself attacked. . . (Report of Gen. R. E. Lee.) The battle over, Jackson's men cared for their wounded, gathered their dead for burial, and prepared for another day of conflict, which they well knew was impending; gathered in groups, praying for further aid to the God of Battles, and to the movement of all of Jackson's men on the left and hurrying on the rout of the Federal army. General Longstreet, anticipating the order for a general advance, now threw his whole command against the Federal center and left. (Report of Gen. R. E. Lee.) The Confederate batteries also joined in the rushing charge and were abreast of their infantry comrades all along the lines, where there was opportunity for giving parting shots to the retreating Federals. Stuart, on the right, on the old
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