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and how far certain items of present expenditure may without prejudice to the commonwealth be diminished. Having spoken thus of administrations and their various departments, we have further proceeded to collect such instances as we deemed noteworthy of the means adopted by certain statesmen in times past for the replenishment of the treasury, and also of their skill in administration. These anecdotes , seemed to us by no means lacking in utility; being capable from time to time of application by others to the business they themselves have in hand. Cypselus of Corinth had made a vow that if he became master of the city, he would offer to Zeus the entire property of the Corinthians. Accordingly he commanded them to make a return of their possessions;
money they sold to a single bank, whose proprietor was given a monopoly of the sale and purchase of coin, protected under penalty of confiscation.And whereas previously the rights of citizenship were by law confined to those whose parents were both citizens, lack of funds, induced them to offer citizenship to him who had one citizen parent on payment of the sum of thirty minae.A mina of silver (1 lb. 5 oz. avoirdupois) was coined into 100 drachmae, each being an artisan's ordinary daily wage. On another occasion, when food and funds were both scarce, they called home all vessels that were trading in the Pontus. On the merchants protesting, they were at length allowed to trade on payment of a tithe of their profits. This tax of 10 per cent was also extended to purchases of every kind.
Byzantium (Turkey) (search for this): book 2, section 1346b
give him a fair price for their property. He therefore sold it to the exiled owners. The exiles had left behind them a number of works of art destined for temple offerings, which lay in certain workshops in an unfinished condition. These Lygdamis proceeded to sell to the exiles and whoso else would buy them; allowing each purchaser to have his name engraved on the offering. The people of Byzantium, being in need of funds, sold such dedicated lands as belonged to the State; those under crops, for a term of years, and those uncultivated, in perpetuity. In like manner they sold lands appropriated to religious celebrations or ancestral cults, not excepting those that were on private estatesSee Lys. 7, the seventh Speech of the Athenian orator Lysias.; for the owners of
Naxos City (Greece) (search for this): book 2, section 1346b
which done, he took from each a tenth part, and told them to employ the remainder in trading. A year later, he repeated the process. And so in ten years' time it came to pass that Cypselus received the entire amount which he had dedicated; while the Corinthians on their part had replaced all that they had paid him. Lygdamis of Naxos, after driving into exile a party of the inhabitants, found that no one would give him a fair price for their property. He therefore sold it to the exiled owners. The exiles had left behind them a number of works of art destined for temple offerings, which lay in certain workshops in an unfinished condition. These Lygdamis proceeded to sell to the exiles and whoso else would buy them; allowing each purchaser to have his name engraved on the offering. The p
ssessment of tax.But instead of each returning the entire amount to his own parish, properties were to be assessed separately, each in its own locality, so that the poor might propose a reduced assessment; while those without any property were assessed at two minae a head. On these assessments each man paid the State the full amount of the war-tax. The city of Antissa had been accustomed to celebrate the festival of Dionysus with great magnificence. Year by yearOr "All through the year." great provision was made for the occasion, and costly sacrifices were prepared. Now one year the city found itself in need of funds; and shortly before the festival, on the proposal of a citizen named Sosipolis, the people after vowing that they would next year offer
It happened that certain aliens residing in the city had lent money on the security of citizens' property. As these aliens did not possess the right of holding such property, the people offered to recognize the title of anyone who chose to pay into the treasury one third of the amount secured. Hippias of Athens offered for sale upper stories that projected over the public streets,Cf. Goethe,Warheit und Dichtung, Book I. "In Frankfurt, as in several ancient cities, those who had erected wooden buildings had sought to obtain more room by allowing the first and higher floors to overhang in the street. . . . At last a law was carried that in all entirely new houses the first floor alone should project; above that, the wall should be perpendicular." The poet's
Lampsakos (Turkey) (search for this): book 2, section 1347a
sacrifices were prepared. Now one year the city found itself in need of funds; and shortly before the festival, on the proposal of a citizen named Sosipolis, the people after vowing that they would next year offer to Dionysus a double amount, collected all that had been provided and sold it. In this way they realized a large sum of money to meet their necessity. On one occasion the people of Lampsacus were expecting to be attacked by a large fleet of triremes.War-ships, each propelled by some 174 rowers ranked in three tiers. The price of barley meal being then four drachmae for a bushel and a half, they instructed the retailers to sell it at six drachmae. Oil, which was at three drachmae for six pints, was to be sold at four drachmae and a half, and wine and other commodities at a propor
and to be enrolled on the list of those who had performed it.Moreover, whenever a citizen died, the priestess of the temple of Athena on the AcropolisThis was the public treasury, like the Temple of Saturnus at Rome. was to receive one quart measure of barley, one of wheat, and a silver obolus.1/6 of the drachma. See 3 above. And when a child was born, the father paid the same dues. The Athenian colonists at Potidaea, being in need of funds for the war, agreed that all should make a return of their property for assessment of tax.But instead of each returning the entire amount to his own parish, properties were to be assessed separately, each in its own locality, so that the poor might propose a reduced assessment; while those without any property were assessed at two minae
sel or preside over a tribe or train a chorus or undertake the expense of some other public service of the kind, he allowed, if they chose, to commute the service for a moderate sum, and to be enrolled on the list of those who had performed it.Moreover, whenever a citizen died, the priestess of the temple of Athena on the AcropolisThis was the public treasury, like the Temple of Saturnus at Rome. was to receive one quart measure of barley, one of wheat, and a silver obolus.1/6 of the drachma. See 3 above. And when a child was born, the father paid the same dues. The Athenian colonists at Potidaea, being in need of funds for the war, agreed that all should make a return of their property for assessment of tax.But instead of each returning the entire amount to his own parish, propert
they could not pay the wages they owed. Accordingly they made proclamation that anyone, either citizen or alien, who had right of reprisal against any city or individual, and wished to exercise it, should have his name entered on a list. A large number of names was enrolled, and the people thus obtained a specious pretext for exercising reprisal upon ships that were passing on their way to the Pontus. They accordingly arrested the ships and fixed a period within which they would consider any claims that might be made in respect of them. Having now a large fund in hand, they paid off the mercenaries, and set up a tribunal to decide the claims; and those whose goods had been unjustly seized were compensated out of the revenues of the state. At Cyzicus, civil strife br
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