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. Huxley, Hume , p. 104: “The dog who barks furiously at a beggar will let a well-dressed man pass him without opposition. Has he not a 'general idea' of rags and dirt associated with the idea of aversion?” Dummler and others assume that Plato is satirizing the Cynics, but who were the Cynics in 380-370 B.C.?” “In what respect, pray?” “In respect,” said I, “that he distinguishes a friendly from a hostile aspect by nothing save his apprehension of the one and his failure to recognize the other. How, I ask you,KAI/TOI PW=S: humorous oratorical appeal. Cf. 360 CKAI/TOI. can the love of learning be denied to a creature whose criterio
e in Class. Phil. 1917, vol. xii. p. 436. It does not refer to Thrasymachus facetiously as Adam fancies, but is an honorific expression borrowed from the Pythagoreans. in the beginning of the elegy which the admirerPossibly Critias. of Glaucon wrote when you distinguished yourselves in the battle of MegaraProbably the battle of 409 B.C., reported in Diodor. Sic. xiii. 65. Cf. Introduction p. viii.—'Sons of Ariston,The implied pun on the name is made explicit in 580 C-D. Some have held that Glaucon and Adeimantus were uncles of Plato, but Zeller decides for the usual view that they wre brothers. Cf. Ph. d. Gr. ii. 1, 4th ed. 1889, p. 392, and Abhandl. d.
“Well,” said I, “perhaps there is a patternCf. Theaet. 176 E, which Wilamowitz, Platon, ii. p. 179 says must refer to the Republic, Laws 739 D-E, 746 B, and What Plato Said, p. 458 on Euthyphro 6 E. of it laid up in heaven for him who wishes to contemplate it and so beholding to constitute himself its citizen.E(AUTO\N KATOIKI/ZEIN: Adam “found a city in himself.” See his note ad loc. Cf. Jebb on Soph.Oed. Col. 1004. But it makes no difference whether it exists now or ever will come into being.Cf. 499 C-D, 472 B-E, and What Plato Said, p. 564. The politics of this city only will be his and of none other.” “That seems probable,” he said.
formulation of the law of contradiction. Cf. Phaedo 102 E, Theaetetus 188 A, Soph. 220 B, 602 E. Sophistical objections are anticipated here and below (436 E) by attaching to it nearly all the qualifying distinctions of the categories which Aristotle wearily observes are necessary PRO\S TA\S SOFISTIKA\S E)NOXLH/SEIS(De interp. 17 a 36-37). Cf. Met. 1005 b 22PRO\S TA\S LOGIKA\S DUSXEREI/AS, and Rhet. ii. 24. Plato invokes the principle against Heraclitism and other philosophies of relativity and the sophistries that grew out of them or played with their formulas. Cf. Unity of Plato's Thought, pp. 50 ff., 53, 58, 68. Aristotle follows Plato in this, pronouncing it PASW=N BEBAIOTA/TH A)RXH/. in the same
suddenly dashed,For PTAI/SANTA cf.Aesch.Prom. 926, Ag. 1624 (Butl. emend.). as a ship on a reef,Cf. Aesch.Ag. 1007, Eumen. 564, Thuc. vii. 25. 7, and Thompson on Phaedr. 255 D. against the state, and making complete wreckageLit. “spilling.” Cf. Lucian, Timon 23. of both his possessions and himself perhaps he has been a general, or has held some other important office, and has then been dragged into court by mischievous sycophants and put to death or banishedFor E)KPESO/NTA cf. 560 A, 566 A. In Xen.An. vii. 5. 13 it is used of shipwreck. Cf.EK)BA/LLONTES488 C. or outlawed and has lost all his property—” “It is likely,” he said. “And the son,
they truly think themselves to be, and really are, in a state of pain, but, when they move from pain to the middle and neutral state, they intensely believe that they are approaching fulfillment and pleasure, and just as if, in ignorance of white, they were comparing grey with black,Cf. Aristot.Met. 1011 b 30-31 and Eth. Nic. 1154 a 30DIA\ TO\ PARA\ TO\ E)NANTI/ON FAI/NESQAI. so, being inexperienced in true pleasure, they are deceived by viewing painlessness in its relation to pain?” “No, by Zeus,” he said, “it would not surprise me, but far rather if it were not so.” “In this way, then, consider it.The argument from the parallel of body and mind here belongs to what we have cal
A. It may be used to cut short discussion (Unity of Plato's Thought, n. 471) or divert it into another channel. Here, however, he is aware, as Aristotle is, that the maximum of contradiction can be proved only controversially against an adversary who says something. (cf. my De Platonis Idearum Doctrina, pp. 7-9, Aristotle Met. 1012 b 1-10); and so, having sufficiently guarded his meaning, he dismisses the subject with the ironical observation that, if the maxim is ever proved false, he will give up all that he bases on the hypothesis of its truth. Cf. Sophist 247 E. that this is so, with the understanding that, if it ever appear otherwise, everything that results
(What Plato Said, p. 624). Cf. also on 533 D. we must especially be on our guard to distinguish the base-born from the true-born. For when the knowledge necessary to make such discriminations is lacking in individual or state, they unawares employ at randomPRO\S O(/ TI A)\N TU/XWSI lit. “for whatsoever they happen to of these (services).” Cf. Symp. 181 B, Prot. 353 A, Crito 44 D and 45 D, Gorg. 522 C, Laws 656 C, Rep. 332 B, 561 D, Dem. iv. 46, Isoc.Panath. 25, 74, 239, Aristot.Mat. 1013 a 6. for any of these purposes the crippled and base-born natures, as their friends or rulers.” “It is so indeed,” he said. “But we,” I said, “must be on our guard in
ibly QH/SEIS TW=N TINO/S is incomplete in itself (cf. 437 B) and EI)=NAI TOU=TO etc. is a loose epexegesis. The only emendation worth notice is Adam's insertion of KAI\ TINO\S between TINO\S and EI)=NAI, which yields a smooth, but painfully explicit, construction. that are of something and say that it is what it isCf. further Sophist 255 D, Aristotle Met. 1021 a 27. Aristotle Cat. v., Top. vi. 4. So Plotinus vi. 1. 7 says that relative terms are those whose very being is the relation KAI\ TO\ EI)=NAI OU)K A)/LLO TI H)\ TO\ A)LLH/LOIS EI)=NAI. in relation to something—and it is, I presume, thirst?” “I will,” said he, “—namely of drink.” “Then if the drink is of a certain kind, so is the
that there was a straight line and a circumference in them and that in respect of the straight line they are standing stillCf. Aristotle Met. 1022 a 23E)/TI DE\ TO\ KAQO\ TO\ KATA\ QE/SIN LE/GETAI, KAQO\ E(/STHKEN, etc, since they do not incline to either side, but in respect of the circumference they move in a circle; but that when as they revolve they incline the perpendicular to right or left or forward or back, then they are in no wise at rest.” “And that would be right,” he said. “No such remarks then will disconcert us or any whit the more make us believe that it is ever possible for the same thing at the same time in the same respect and the same relation
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