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"> many ere now who, having desired sovereignty, and endeavored to secure it, with the idea of working for their good, have lost their lives by plots which their sovereignty has provoked. And I expect you are not unacquainted with certain events “of a day or two ago,”Hom. Il. 2.303 when Archelaus, the monarch of Macedonia, was slainThis assassination occurred in 399 B.C., the year of Socrates' death. by his favorite, who was as much in love with the monarchy as Archelaus was with him, and who killed his lo
And moreover, in regard to the Sicilian business,The disastrous Sicilian expedition of 415-413 B.C. Cf. Thuc. vi. and vii. many will tell you what I said about the destruction of the army. As to bygones, you may hear from those who know: but there is an opportunity now of testing the worth of what the sign says. For as the handsome Sannio was setting out on campaign, the sign occurred to me, and he has gone now with Thrasyllus on an expedition bound for Ephesus and Ionia.409 B.C., when Thrasyllus succeeded in recovering Colophon for Athens. He was one of the commanders put to death by the Athenians after the battle of Arginusae, 406 B.C. I accordingly expect him to be either killed or brought very near it, and I have great fears for our force as a whole.
And moreover, in regard to the Sicilian business,The disastrous Sicilian expedition of 415-413 B.C. Cf. Thuc. vi. and vii. many will tell you what I said about the destruction of the army. As to bygones, you may hear from those who know: but there is an opportunity now of testing the worth of what the sign says. For as the handsome Sannio was setting out on campaign, the sign occurred to me, and he has gone now with Thrasyllus on an expedition bound for Ephesus and Ionia.409 B.C., when Thrasyllus succeeded in recovering Colophon for Athens. He was one of the commanders put to death by the Athenians after the battle of Arginusae, 406 B.C. I accordingly expect him to be either killed or brought very near it, and I have great fears for our force as a whole.
And moreover, in regard to the Sicilian business,The disastrous Sicilian expedition of 415-413 B.C. Cf. Thuc. vi. and vii. many will tell you what I said about the destruction of the army. As to bygones, you may hear from those who know: but there is an opportunity now of testing the worth of what the sign says. For as the handsome Sannio was setting out on campaign, the sign occurred to me, and he has gone now with Thrasyllus on an expedition bound for Ephesus and Ionia.409 B.C., when Thrasyllus succeeded in recovering Colophon for Athens. He was one of the commanders put to death by the Athenians after the battle of Arginusae, 406 B.C. I accordingly expect him to be either killed or brought very near it, and I have great fears for our force as a whole.
but his country's name. He accompanied me in the retreat from Delium,On the coast just north of Attica, where the Athenians were severely defeated by the Boeotians in 424 B.C. and I assure you that if the rest had chosen to be like him, our city would be holding up her head and would not then have had such a terrible fall.LysimachusSocrates, this is indeed splendid praise which you are now receiving from men whose word is of great weight, and for such conduct as wins their praise. So let me tell you that I rejoice to hear this and to know you have such a good reputation; and you in return must count me as one of your warmest well-wishers.
We arrived yesterday evening from the army at Potidaea,A Cortinthian colony in Chalcidice which was a tributary ally of Athens, and revolted from her in 433 B.C. In the next year an Athenian force met and fought a Peloponnesian force at Potidaea, and then laid siege to the city. Thus began the Peloponnesian War. and I sought with delight, after an absence of some time, my wonted conversations. Accordingly I went into the wrestling-school of Taureas,A professional trainer. opposite the Queen's shrine,There was a shrine of Basile, or the Queen (of whom nothing is known), some way to the south of the Acropolis. Cf. Fraser, Pausanias ii. p. 203. and there I came upon quite a number of people, some of whom were unknown to me, but most of whom I knew. And as soon as they saw me
of any but the Heracleidae? And the Persian king so far surpasses us that no one has a suspicion that he could have been born of anybody but the king before him; and hence the king's wife has nothing to guard her except fear. When the eldest son, the heir to the throne, is born, first of all the king's subjects who are in his palace have a feast, and then for ever after on that date the whole of Asia celebrates the king's birthday with sacrifice and feasting: but when we are born, as the comic poetThe saying, which became proverbial, is thought to have occurred in one of the (now lost) plays of Plato, the Athenian comic poet, who lived c. 460-389 B.C. says,
and so brings them acquainted; or have you not come across these verses? Yes, I have, he replied. And you have also come across those writings of eminent sages, which tell us this very thing—that like must needs be always friend to like? I refer, of course, to those who debate or write about nature and the universe.The attraction of like for like was an important force in the cosmology of Empedocles (c. 475-415 B.C.) Quite so, he said. Well now, I went on, are they right in what they say? Perhaps, he replied. Perhaps in one half of it, I said; perhaps in even the whole; only we do not comprehend it. We suppose that the nearer a wicked ma
For they say that at Plataea, when the Spartans came up to the men with wicker shields, they were not willing to stand and fight against these, but fled; when, however, the Persian ranks weree broken, the Spartans kept turning round and fighting like cavalry, and so won that great battle.In the final struggle at Plataea (479 B.C.) the Spartans at first hesitated before the barrier of wicker shields opposed to them by the Persians; but by a supreme effort they broke through and defeated the Persians by turning on them in man-to-man combat. Cf. Herod. ix. 61-2.LachesWhat you say is true.SocratesAnd so this is what I meant just now by sayng that I was to blame for your wrong answer, by putting my question wrongly.
AlcibiadesYes, and mine, Socrates, to Eurysaces, and that of Eurysaces to Zeus!SocratesYes, and mine, noble Alcibiades, to Daedalus,Socrates' father, Sophroniscus, was a sculptor, and Daedalus was the legendary inventor of sculpture. and Daedalus to Hephaestus, son of Zeus! But take the lines of those people,i.e., the kings of Sparta and Persia. going back from them: you have a succession of kings reaching to Zeus—on the one hand, kings of Argos and Sparta; on the other, of Persia, which they have always ruled, and frequently Asia also, as at present; whereas we are private persons ourselves, and so were our fathers. And then
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