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icily, and, after his death, which occurred at the home of Cocalus in Camici,Cp. 6. 2. 6. set sail from Sicily; but on the voyage backBack to Crete. they were driven out of their course to Taras, although later some of them went afoot around the AdriasThe Adriatic. as far as Macedonia and were called Bottiaeans. But all the people as far as Daunia, it is said, were called Iapyges, after Iapyx, who is said to have been the son of Daedalus by a Cretan woman and to have been the leader of the Cre now Sinigaglia. is five hundred and sixty-two miles, and thence to Aquileia one hundred and seventy-eight. And they do not agree with the commonly accepted distance along the Illyrian coastline, from the Ceraunian Mountains to the recess of the Adrias,The Adriatic. since they represent this latter coasting voyage as over six thousand stadia,Polybius here gives the total length of the coastline on the Italian side as 740 miles, or 6,166 stadia (8 1/3 stadia to the mile; see 7. 7. 4), and elsew
very summit, where those who consult the oracle sacrifice to his shade a black ram and sleep in the hide, and the other, to Podaleirius, down near the base of the hill, this temple being about one hundred stadia distant from the sea; and from it flows a stream which is a cure-all for diseases of animals. In front of this gulf is a promontory, Garganum, which extends towards the east for a distance of three hundred stadia into the high sea; doubling the headland, one comes to a small town, Urium, and off the headland are to be seen the Islands of Diomedes. This whole country produces everything in great quantity, and is excellent for horses and sheep; but though the wool is softer than the Tarantine, it is not so glossy. And the country is well sheltered, because the plains lie in hollows. According to some, Diomedes even tried to cut a canal as far as the sea, but left behind both this and the rest of his undertakings only half-finished, because he was summoned home and there e
Thence to Brentesium four hundred; and it is an equal distance to the island Sason,Now Sasena. which is situated about midway of the distance across from Epeirus to Brentesium. And therefore those who cannot accomplish the straight voyage sail to the left of Sason and put in at Hydrus; and then, watching for a favorable wind, they hold their course towards the harbors of the Brentesini, although if they disembark, they go afoot by a shorter route by way of Rodiae,Also called Rudiae; now Rugge. a Greek city, where the poet Ennius was born. So then, the district one sails around in going from Taras to Brentesium resembles a peninsula, and the overland journey from Brentesium to Taras, which is only a one day's journey for a man well-girt, forms the isthmus of the aforesaid peninsula;6. 3. 1. and this peninsula most people call by one general name Messapia, or Iapygia, or Calabria, or Salentina, although some divide it up, as I have said before.6. 3. 1. So much, then, for the tow
Macedonia (Macedonia) (search for this): book 6, chapter 3
ch occurred at the home of Cocalus in Camici,Cp. 6. 2. 6. set sail from Sicily; but on the voyage backBack to Crete. they were driven out of their course to Taras, although later some of them went afoot around the AdriasThe Adriatic. as far as Macedonia and were called Bottiaeans. But all the people as far as Daunia, it is said, were called Iapyges, after Iapyx, who is said to have been the son of Daedalus by a Cretan woman and to have been the leader of the Cretans. The city of Taras, howevays of the year; and in consequence of this they also were poorly governed. One evidence of their bad policies is the fact that they employed foreign generals; for they sent for AlexanderAlexander I was appointed king of Epeirus by Philip of Macedonia about 342 B.C., and was killed by a Luecanian about 330 B.C. (cp. 6. 1. 5). the Molossian to lead them in their war against the Messapians and Leucanians, and, still before that, for Archidamus,Archidamus III, king of Sparta, was born about 400
em. And Iapygia borders on them. The Greeks call it Messapia, also, but the natives, dividing it into two parts, call one part (that about the Iapygian Cape)Cape Leuca. the country of the Salentini, and the other the country of the Calabri. Above these latter, on the north, are the Peucetii and also those people who in the Greekeretum, is situated at the edge of the Salentine territory, and the trip thither from Taras is for the most part easier to make on foot than by sailing. Thence to Leuca eighty stadia; this, too, is a small town, and in it is to be seen a fountain of malodorous water; the mythical story is told that those of the Giants who surviv Earth, and the fountain gets its malodorous stream from the ichor of their bodies; and for this reason, also, the seaboard here is called Leuternia. Again, from Leuca to Hydrus,Also called Hydruntum; now Otranto. a small town, one hundred and fifty stadia. Thence to Brentesium four hundred; and it is an equal distance to the
Messenia (Greece) (search for this): book 6, chapter 3
nineteen years, relentlessly, with heart ever steadfast, did the fathers of our fathers, spearmen they; and in the twentieth the people forsook their fertile farms and fled from the great mountains of Ithome." Now the Lacedaemonians divided up Messenia among themselves, but when they came on back home they would not honor the Partheniae with civic rights like the rest, on the ground that they had been born out of wedlock; and the Partheniae, leaguing with the Helots, formed a plot against thecedaemonians persuaded them, through the influence of their fathers, to go forth and found a colony, and if the place they took possession of sufficed them, to stay there, but if not, to come on back and divide among themselves the fifth part of Messenia. And they, thus sent forth, found the Achaeans at war with the barbarians, took part in their perils, and founded Taras. At one time the Tarantini were exceedingly powerful, that is, when they enjoyed a democratic government; for they not only
Rhegium (Italy) (search for this): book 6, chapter 3
mpania. And the common road from here on, as far as Rome, is called the Appian Way, and passes through Caudium,Now Montesarchio. Calatia,Now Galazze. Capua,The old Santa Maria di Capua, now in ruins; not the Capua of today, which is on the site of Casilinum. and Casilinum to Sinuessa.Now Mondragone. And the places from there on I have already mentioned. The total length of the road from Rome to Brentesium is three hundred and sixty miles. But there is also a third road, which runs from Rhegium through the countries of the Brettii, the Leucani, and the Samnitae into Campania, where it joins the Appian Way; it passes through the Apennine Mountains and it requires three or four days more than the road from Brentesium. The voyage from Brentesium to the opposite mainland is made either to the Ceraunian Mountains and those parts of the seaboard of Epeirus and of Greece which come next to them, or else to Epidamnus; the latter is longer than the former, for it is one thousand eight hu
two roadsOn these roads see Ashby and Gardner, The Via Trajana, Paper of the British School at Rome, 1916, Vol.VIII, No. 5, pp. 107 ff. from here: one, a mule-road through the countries of the Peucetii (who are called Poedicli),Cp. 6. 3. 1. the Daunii, and the Samnitae as far as Beneventum; on this road is the city of Egnatia,Also spelled Gnathia, Gnatia, and Ignatia; now Torre d'Agnazzo. and then, Celia,Also spelled Caelia; now Ceglie di Bari. Netium,Now Noja. Canusium, and Herdonia.Now Ordona. But the road by way of Taras, lying slightly to the left of the other, though as much as one day's journey out of the way when one has made the circuit,i.e., to the point where it meets the other road, near Beneventum. what is called the Appian Way, is better for carriages. On this road are the cities of Uria and Venusia, the former between Taras and Brentesium and the latter on the confines of the Samnitae and the Leucani. Both the roads from Brentesium meet near Beneventum and Campania
rding to certain narrators of myths, Diomedes was caused to disappear, and his companions were changed to birds, and to this day, in fact, remain tame and live a sort of human life, not only in their orderly ways but also in their tameness towards honorable men and in their flight from wicked and knavish men. But I have already mentioned the stories constantly told among the Heneti about this hero and the rites which are observed in his honor.Cp. 5. 1. 9. It is thought that SipusIn Latin, Sipontum; now in ruins, near Santa Maria di Siponto. also was founded by Diomedes, which is about one hundred and forty stadia distant from Salapia; at any rate it was named "Sepius" in Greek after the "sepia"Cuttle-fish. that are cast ashore by the waves. Between Salapia and Sinus is a navigable river, and also a large lake that opens into the sea; and the merchandise from Sipus, particularly grain, is brought down on both. In Daunia, on a hill by the name of Drium, are to be seen two hero-tem
Passo (Missouri, United States) (search for this): book 6, chapter 3
er, at the present time at least, although it is reasonable to suppose that in early times they differed and that this is the source of the three diverse names for them that are now prevalent. In earlier times this whole country was prosperous, but it was laid waste by Hannibal and the later wars. And here too occurred the battle of Cannae, in which the Romans and their allies suffered a very great loss of life. On the gulf is a lake; and above the lake, in the interior, is Teanum Apulum,Passo di Civita. which has the same name as Teanum Sidicinum. At this point the breadth of Italy seems to be considerably contracted, since from here to the region of DicaearcheiaPuteoli. an isthmus is left of less than one thousand stadia from sea to sea. After the lake comes the voyage along the coast to the country of the Frentani and to Buca;Now Termoli. and the distance from the lake either to Buca or to Cape Garganum is two hundred stadia. As for the places that come next after Buca, I h
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