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he imagined this great difference arose from the excessive winding course of the Nile; consequently he supposed the Nile to change frequently the direction of its course. This opinion had its influence in the construction of Ptolemy's map, which presents to us nearly all the inflexions which Eratosthenes imagined; in calculating the intervals of positions assigned by Ptolemy along the river, we find a total of 1260 minutes; and adding about 1/6 for the small windings, we have a total of 1470 minutes, which are equal to 12,400 stadia of the module (700 to the degree) adopted by that geographer. According to this hypothesis, the distance in Strabo will be thus divided: Setting out from Meroë, the Nile runs, days. 1. 2700 stadia to the north12ċ8 2. 3700 to the S. and S. W.17ċ6 3. 5300 to the N. 1/4 E.25 4. 1200 to the N.5ċ7 61ċ1 which nearly corresponds with the account of Timosthenes. The number of days corresponds tolerably well with the distance given by the explorers sent b
Ptolemy (Auletes) on being restored by Gabinius, put to death both Archelaus and his daughter;The elder sister of Cleopatra. but not long afterSix months after. he was reinstated in his kingdom, he died a natural death, leaving two sons and two daughters, the eldest of whom was Cleopatra. The Alexandrines declared as sovereigns the eldest son and Cleopatra. But the adherents of the son excited a se- dition, and banished Cleopatra, who retired with her sister into Syria.About B. C. 49. It was about this time that Pompey the Great, in his flight from Palæ-pharsalus,B. ix. c. v. § 6. came to Pelusium and Mount Casium. He was treacherously slain by the king's party. When Cæsar arrived, he put the young prince to death, and sending for Cleopatra from her place of exile, appointed her queen of Egypt, declaring also her surviving brother, who was very young, and herself joint sovereigns. After the death of Cæsar and the battle at Pharsalia, Antony passed over into Asia; he
ter Egypt is difficult of access, i. e. from the eastern side towards Phœnicia and Judæa, and on the side of Arabia Nabatæa, which is contiguous; through which countries the road to Egypt lies. The country between the Nile and the Arabian Gulf is Arabia, and at its extremity is situated Pelusium. But the whole is desert, and not passable by an army. The isthmus between Pelusium and the recess of the Arabian Gulf near Heroopolis is 1000 stadia; but, according to Poseidonius, less than 1500 stadia in extent. Besides its being sandy and without water, it abounds with reptiles, which burrow in the sand. In sailing up the river from Schedia to Memphis,Memphis was the residence of the Pharaohs, who succeeded Psammitichus, B. C. 616. The Memphite Nome rose into importance on the decline of the kingdom of Thebais, and was itself in turn eclipsed by the Hellenic kingdom of Alexandria. The village of Mitranieh, half concealed in a grove of palm trees, about ten miles south of Giz
landmark to all who ascended the arms of the river, from the Mediterranean to Memphis. Its ruins have been very imperfectly explored, yet traces have been found of the lake on which the mysteries of Isis were performed, as well as of the temple of Neith (Athene) and the necropolis of the Saïte kings. The wall of unburnt brick which surrounded the principal buildings of the city was 70 feet thick, and probably, therefore, at least 100 feet high. It enclosed an area 2325 feet in length by 1960 in breadth. Beyond this enclosure were also two large cemeteries, one for the citizens generally, and the other reserved for the nobles and priests of the higher orders. Saïs was one of the sacred cities of Egypt: its principal deities were Neith, who gave oracles there, and Isis. The mysteries of the latter were celebrated with unusual pomp on the evening of the Feast of Lamps. Herodotus (ii. 59) terms this festival the third of the great feasts in the Egyptian calendar. It was held b
is Arabia, and at its extremity is situated Pelusium. But the whole is desert, and not passable by an army. The isthmus between Pelusium and the recess of the Arabian Gulf near Heroopolis is 1000 stadia; but, according to Poseidonius, less than 1500 stadia in extent. Besides its being sandy and without water, it abounds with reptiles, which burrow in the sand. In sailing up the river from Schedia to Memphis,Memphis was the residence of the Pharaohs, who succeeded Psammitichus, B. C. 616. The Memphite Nome rose into importance on the decline of the kingdom of Thebais, and was itself in turn eclipsed by the Hellenic kingdom of Alexandria. The village of Mitranieh, half concealed in a grove of palm trees, about ten miles south of Gizeh, marks the site of the ancient Memphis. The successive conquerors of the land, indeed, nave used its ruins as a stone quarry, so that its exact situation has been a subject of dispute. Major Rennell, however, brings incontestable evidence o
ebira or Marsa Sollom. to Parætonium is a run of 900 stadia for a vessel in a direct course. There is a city and a large harbour of about 40 stadia in extent, by some called the city Parætonium,Baretoun, or Berek-Marsa. Alexander, after passing 1600 stadia through that part of the desert where water was to be found to Parætonium, then turned inland to visit the oracle of Ammon. Arrian, b. iii. § 3 by others, Ammonia. Between these is the village of the Egyptians, and the promontory Ænesisphtificial construction, but was inferior to it in size, the sides of the base being a stadium each in length. On the greater pyramid is an inscription which states the amount expended on herbs and radishes for the workmen, and it informs us that 1600 talents were paid for this purpose. The lesser pyramid bears no inscription, and it has an ascent formed in it through an opening in one of the sides. But although the kings built these pyramids for their own tombs, yet it has so happened that
s, and in general are more exact. Some idea of the immense labour required may be obtained from considerations such as follow:— The base and height being given, we find for the solid contents— cubic yards. 1. of the great pyramid2,864,000 2. of Chephren2,056,000 3. of Mycerinus211,000 So that if a wall of (three metres) about 9 1/4 feet in height, and a foot ii thickness, were built with the materials of these pyramids, we should have a wall— miles. 1. from the great pyramid in length1626 2. from Chephren or Cheops1167 3. from Mycerinus117 The stones, therefore, of the three pyramids would form such a wall 2910 miles in length, or one sufficient to reach from Alexandreia to the coast of Guinea. Letronne. Three of them are considerable. Two of these are reckoned among the seven wonders [of the world]. They are a stadium in height, and of a quadrangular shape. Their height somewhat exceeds the length of each of the sides.This is a palpable error, and greater than that of He<
ot and on camels. This he did because the navigation of the Red Sea was difficult, particularly to those who set out from the recess of the bay. Experience showed the great utility of this plan, and at present all the Indian, Arabian, and such Ethiopian merchandise as is imported by the Arabian Gulf is carried to Coptos, which is the mart for such commodities. Not far from Berenice is Myos Hormus,Near old Kosseir; the Veneris Portus of Pliny. It was founded by Ptolemy Philadelphus, B. C. 274. The Greek name may signify, Harbour of the Mouse, but more probably it means the Harbour of the Mussel, (mu/ein, to close, e. g. the shell,) since on the neighbouring coast the pearl-mussel is collected in large quantities. It is uncertain whether the ruins at the village of Abuschaar, represent the site of the ancient Myos Hormus. See Smith's Dict., art. Myos Hormus a city with a naval station for vessels which navigate this sea; at no great distance from Coptos is the city of Ap
-palms, produces the caryotic, which is not inferior to the Babylonian. There are, however, two kinds of dates in the Thebaïs and in Judæa, the caryotic and another. The Thebaic is firmer, but the flavour is more agreeable. There is an island remarkable for producing the best dates, and it also furnishes the largest revenue to the governors. It was appropriated to the kings, and no private person had any share in the produce; at present it belongs to the governors. HerodotusHerod. ii. 28, who, however, seems to doubt the veracity of his informant. and other writers trifle very much when they introduce into their histories the marvellous, like (an interlude of) music and song, or some melody; for example, in asserting that the sources of the Nile are near the numerous islands, at Syene and Elephantina, and that at this spot the river has an unfathomable depth. In the Nile there are many islands scattered about, some of which are entirely covered, others in part only, at the
000 stadia, which he had calculated in a straight line for the same interval, he imagined this great difference arose from the excessive winding course of the Nile; consequently he supposed the Nile to change frequently the direction of its course. This opinion had its influence in the construction of Ptolemy's map, which presents to us nearly all the inflexions which Eratosthenes imagined; in calculating the intervals of positions assigned by Ptolemy along the river, we find a total of 1260 minutes; and adding about 1/6 for the small windings, we have a total of 1470 minutes, which are equal to 12,400 stadia of the module (700 to the degree) adopted by that geographer. According to this hypothesis, the distance in Strabo will be thus divided: Setting out from Meroë, the Nile runs, days. 1. 2700 stadia to the north12ċ8 2. 3700 to the S. and S. W.17ċ6 3. 5300 to the N. 1/4 E.25 4. 1200 to the N.5ċ7 61ċ1 which nearly corresponds with the account of Timosthenes. The number of
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