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d been effected. The Iberians, and Kelts, and all the rest who are subject to the Romans, shared a similar fate, for the Romans never rested in the subjugation of the land to their sway until they had entirely overthrown it: in the first instance they took Numantia,In the year B. C. 133. and subdued Viriathus,In the year B. C. 140. and afterwards vanquished Sertorius,B. C. 72. and last of all the Cantabrians,The inhabitants of Biscay. who were brought to subjection by Augustus Cæsar.B. C. 19. Likewise the whole of Gaul both within and beyond the Alps with Liguria were annexed at first by a partial occupation, but subsequently divus Cæsar and then Augustus subdued them completely in open war, so that nowAbout A. D. 17 or 18. the Romans direct their expeditions against the Germans from these countries as the most convenient rendezvous, and have already adorned their own country with several triumphs over them. Also in Africa all that did not belong to the Carthaginians has be
m they conquered the Tarentines and Pyrrhus,About 275 B. C. and presently after the remainder of what is now considered as Italy, with the exception of the districts on the Po. While these still remained a subject of dispute they passed over into Sicily,In the year 264 B. C. and having wrested that island from the CarthaginiansIn the year 241 B. C. they re- turned to complete the conquest of the people dwelling along the Po. While this war was still in hand Hannibal entered Italy,218 B. C. thus the second war against the Carthaginians ensued, and after a very short interval the third, in which Carthage was demolished.146 B. C. At the same time the Romans became masters of Africa,Libu\h. and of such portions of Spain as they won from the Carthaginians. Both the Greeks and the Macedonians, and the nations of Asia who dwelt on the hither side of the river Kisil-IrmakThe ancient Halys. and the Taurus, took part in these struggles with the Carthaginians: over these Antio
iii. § 17. of these the former are in subjection to the Romans, and the latter are unprofitable for commerce on account of their wandering life, and only require to be watched. The rest of the countries [of Asia] are chiefly inhabited by ScenitesInhabitants of tents. and Nomades who dwell at a great distance. The Parthians indeed border on them and are very powerful, but they have yielded so far to the superiority of the Romans and our emperors, that they have not only sent backIn the year 20 B. C. See book xvi. chap. i. § 28. to Rome the trophies which they had at a still more distant period taken from the Romans, but Phraates has even sent his sons and his sons' sons to Augustus Cæsar, as hostages, assiduously courting his friendship:Compare Tacitus, Annales, lib. ii. § 1. indeed the [Parthians] of the present time frequently send for a king from hence,As Vonones, mentioned by Tacitus in his second book. and are almost on the point of relinquishing all power to the Romans.
Lettres, vol. iv. Mém. p. 462. on account of his good will and friendship towards the Romans. The like things have taken place in Asia. At first it was governed by kings who were dependent on the Romans, and afterwards when their several lines of succession failed, as of that of the kings Attalus,Attalus III., king of Pergamus, died 133 B. C., and constituted the Roman people his heir. the kings of the Syrians,We may here observe that the Seleucidæ ceased to reign in Syria as early as 83 B. C., when that country, wearied of their sad dissensions, willingly submitted to Tigranes the king of Armenia, but their race was not extinct, and even in the year 64 B. C. when Pompey made the kingdom a Roman province, there were two princes of the Seleucidæ, Antiochus Asiaticus and his brother Seleucus-Cybiosactes, who had an hereditary right to the throne; the latter however died about 54 B. C., and in him terminated the race of the Seleucidæ. the Paphlagonians,The race of the kings of
the people who inhabit the countries on the hither side of the DanubeIster. and the Kisil-IrmakThe ancient Halys. had been effected. The Iberians, and Kelts, and all the rest who are subject to the Romans, shared a similar fate, for the Romans never rested in the subjugation of the land to their sway until they had entirely overthrown it: in the first instance they took Numantia,In the year B. C. 133. and subdued Viriathus,In the year B. C. 140. and afterwards vanquished Sertorius,B. C. 72. and last of all the Cantabrians,The inhabitants of Biscay. who were brought to subjection by Augustus Cæsar.B. C. 19. Likewise the whole of Gaul both within and beyond the Alps with Liguria were annexed at first by a partial occupation, but subsequently divus Cæsar and then Augustus subdued them completely in open war, so that nowAbout A. D. 17 or 18. the Romans direct their expeditions against the Germans from these countries as the most convenient rendezvous, and have already adorned
when they expelled him, and established a mixed form of government, being a modification both of the monarchical and aristocratical systems; they admitted both the SabinesIn the year 747 B. C. and LatinsIn the year 594 B. C. into their alliance, but as neither they nor the other neighbouring states continued to act with good faith towards them at all times, they were under the necessity of aggrandizing themselves by the dismemberment of their neighbours.The Latins were first subjected in 499 B. C., but not totally subjugated; the Sabines were almost annihilated in the war which happened about 450 B. C. Having thus, by degrees, arrived at a state of considerable importance, it chanced that they lost their city suddenly, contrary to the expectation of all men, and again recovered the same contrary to all expectation.See Poly b. Hist. book i. chap. vi. § 1, edit. Schweigh, tom. i. p. 12. This took place, according to Polybius, in the nineteenth year after the naval engagement o
was demolished.146 B. C. At the same time the Romans became masters of Africa,Libu\h. and of such portions of Spain as they won from the Carthaginians. Both the Greeks and the Macedonians, and the nations of Asia who dwelt on the hither side of the river Kisil-IrmakThe ancient Halys. and the Taurus, took part in these struggles with the Carthaginians: over these AntiochusAntiochus ceded Asia Minor in the year B. C. 189. was king, and Philip and Perseus,Perseus was taken in the year B. C. 167. these therefore the Romans found themselves obliged to subdue. The people likewise of Illyria and Thrace, who were next neighbours to the Greeks and Macedonians, at this time commenced the war with the Romans that never ceased, until the subjugation of all the people who inhabit the countries on the hither side of the DanubeIster. and the Kisil-IrmakThe ancient Halys. had been effected. The Iberians, and Kelts, and all the rest who are subject to the Romans, shared a similar fate, fo
ngs who were dependent on the Romans, and afterwards when their several lines of succession failed, as of that of the kings Attalus,Attalus III., king of Pergamus, died 133 B. C., and constituted the Roman people his heir. the kings of the Syrians,We may here observe that the Seleucidæ ceased to reign in Syria as early as 83 B. C., when that country, wearied of their sad dissensions, willingly submitted to Tigranes the king of Armenia, but their race was not extinct, and even in the year 64 B. C. when Pompey made the kingdom a Roman province, there were two princes of the Seleucidæ, Antiochus Asiaticus and his brother Seleucus-Cybiosactes, who had an hereditary right to the throne; the latter however died about 54 B. C., and in him terminated the race of the Seleucidæ. the Paphlagonians,The race of the kings of Paphlagonia became extinct about 7 B. C. See M. l' Abbé Belley, Diss. sur l' ère de Germanicopolis, &c. Ac. des Inscr. et Belles-Lettres, vol. xxx. Mém. p. 331. Cappa<
kings of the Syrians,We may here observe that the Seleucidæ ceased to reign in Syria as early as 83 B. C., when that country, wearied of their sad dissensions, willingly submitted to Tigranes the king of Armenia, but their race was not extinct, and even in the year 64 B. C. when Pompey made the kingdom a Roman province, there were two princes of the Seleucidæ, Antiochus Asiaticus and his brother Seleucus-Cybiosactes, who had an hereditary right to the throne; the latter however died about 54 B. C., and in him terminated the race of the Seleucidæ. the Paphlagonians,The race of the kings of Paphlagonia became extinct about 7 B. C. See M. l' Abbé Belley, Diss. sur l' ère de Germanicopolis, &c. Ac. des Inscr. et Belles-Lettres, vol. xxx. Mém. p. 331. Cappadocians,The royal race of Cappadocia failed about 91 B. C. and Egyptians,The race of the Lagidæ terminated with Ptolemy Auletes, who died 44 B. C., leaving two daughters, Cleopatra and Arsinoë. Ptolemy Apion died 96 B. C.; he
d the Tyrrheni,About 310 B. C. and stayed the Kelts, who border the Po, from their too frequent and licentious forays; then the Samnites, and after them they conquered the Tarentines and Pyrrhus,About 275 B. C. and presently after the remainder of what is now considered as Italy, with the exception of the districts on the Po. While these still remained a subject of dispute they passed over into Sicily,In the year 264 B. C. and having wrested that island from the CarthaginiansIn the year 241 B. C. they re- turned to complete the conquest of the people dwelling along the Po. While this war was still in hand Hannibal entered Italy,218 B. C. thus the second war against the Carthaginians ensued, and after a very short interval the third, in which Carthage was demolished.146 B. C. At the same time the Romans became masters of Africa,Libu\h. and of such portions of Spain as they won from the Carthaginians. Both the Greeks and the Macedonians, and the nations of Asia who dw
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