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Altum: the town originally stood on a steep hill, and the citadel was a well-known stronghold (Dict. G. s. v.). Arva Gabinae Iunonis, the territory of Gabii, Gabii itself not having been built, as Serv. remarks. The worship of Juno under different names was very general throughout that part of Italy (Dict. M. Juno).
Messapus was the eponymous hero of Messapia or Iapygia, and was claimed by Ennius as his progenitor. Why Virg. connects him with a different part of Italy does not appear. This line is repeated 9. 523. See also v. 189 above.
Strictly speaking the construction is aut quam multae aristae cum sole novo densae torrentur, but as densae really does duty for multae, we may say that Virg. expresses himself as if the comParison in v. 718 had been introduced by ac veluti, quales, or some similar form. Heyne, after Faber and others, at one time conj. quam for cum, and so an edition of 1495: and one MS. (not one of Ribbeck's number) has quot. Sole novo would naturally mean either the early morning (G. 1. 288) or the early warm weather (G. 2. 332): but it is difficult to see why either of these should be represented as baking the ears of corn, as we should rather have expected the maturi soles (G. 1. 66) of summer. Perhaps it may mean an Eastern sun, like sole recenti Pers. 5. 54, the countries being spoken of relatively to Italy.
The Sarrastes are unknown to history: but Serv. refers to a work on Italy by Conon for the statement that they were Pelasgian and other Greek emigrants who settled in Campania, and gave the river near which they took up their abode the name of Sarnus from a river in their own country. No Greek river is mentioned as bearing the name: nor is it known when Conon lived, though there were two or three writers so called (Dict. B. Conon). For Sarnus see Dict. G., where it is said that the course of the river is not now what it was, having doubtless been changed by the eruption of Vesuvius which overthrew Herculaneum and Pompeii.
Angitia, not Anguitia is the spelling of this name attested by inscriptions and the best MSS. The spelling Anguitia probably arose from a supposed connexion of the name with anguis: it is more probably connected with ancus. The chief seat of the worship of this goddess was the shore of the lake Fucinus: but inscriptions Angitiis, Angitiae, Dis . . . Ancitibus, have been found elsewhere. (Preller, Römische Mythologie. p. 362.) She was said to be a daughter of Aeetes, sister or niece of Circe and sister of Medea, who taught the Marsians the use of drugs. Comp. the connexion of Circe with Italy v. 10 above.
Sublatis cornibus gives the picture: she was represented as completely transformed, iam saetis obsita, iam bos. Io was chosen on account of Turnus' connexion with Argos, as if he was the representative of Greece in Italy.
Auruncae manus, Auruncans on the nearer side of the Liris, as distinguished from those on the further side, above v. 727. Rutuli followed by Rutulos v. 798 is a little awkward, so that Heyne wished to read Siculi here, from a quotation (erroneous, as he admits) by Serv. on 1. 2. Veteresque Sicani: gentes venere Sicanae 8. 328 note: see also 11. 317 foll. Veteres points to their early settlement in Italy, 8. l. c.
Viro Dardanio may give, as Serv. thinks, the reason why Aeneas is represented as finding allies so soon, his hereditary connexion with Italy. The use of increbrescere with nomen is poetical.
Sate sanguine divom 6. 125. Gente deum is not as in 10. 228., 11. 305, a race sprung from the gods, but a race consisting of gods. Troianam urbem: comp. 1. 68, Ilium in Italiam portans and see on 2. 703., 3. 86. Revehis, because Dardanus had come from Italy: comp. 7. 240 &c.
Macrob. Sat. 5. 21 says that the scyphus was proper to the rites of Hercules. Serv. has a story of a wooden scyphus of great size, brought to Italy by Hercules himself, and preserved in pitch, with which the praetor made a libation (at the Ara Maxuma?) once a year: and he thinks this accounts both for sacer and inplevit. Instances of allusion to the cup of Hercules are collected by Cerda; and it appears from Plutarch, Life of Alexander, 75, that sku/fon *(hrakle/ous e)kpiei=n was a phrase, probably for a huge draught. Manum pinu inplet 9. 72.