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Browsing named entities in Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 23-25 (ed. Frank Gardener Moore, Professor Emeritus in Columbia University).

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ich he had traced in the dust and was slain by a soldier, not knowing who he was;Cf. Plutarch's account, Marcellus 19; Valerius Maximus VIII. 7. Ext. 7; Cicero de Finibus V. 50. that Marcellus was grieved at this, and his burial duly provided for; and that his name and memory were an honour and a protection to his relatives, search even being made for them. Such in the main was the capture of Syracuse,Actually the fall of Syracuse appears to have taken place in the following year, 211 B.C. in which there was booty in such quantity as there would scarcely have been if Carthage, with which the conflict was on evenB.C. 212 terms, had at that time been captured. A few days before Syracuse was taken, Titus Otacilius with eighty five-bankers crossed over from Lilybaeum to Utica. And having entered the harbour before daylight, he captured cargo-ships laden with grain, and disembarking ravaged a considerable area around Utica and drove booty of every kind back to the ships.
In Spain in the same summer, when for about two yearsThis apparently from a source which placed the defeat and death of the Scipios in 211 B.C.; cf. note on xxxvi. 14. nothing very notable had occurred and the war was being waged more by diplomacy than by arms, the Roman generals, on leaving their winter-quarters, united their forces. Thereupon a council was called and all were of one mind, that, since up to that time they had accomplished nothing except to hold Hasdrubal back from pushing on into Italy, it was time that their task should now be to end the war in Spain. And they believed they had sufficient reinforcements for that purpose in twenty thousand Celtiberians who had been called to arms that winter. The enemy had three armies. Hasdrubal, the son of Gisgo, and Mago with adjoining camps were about five days' march from the Romans. Nearer was Hasdrubal, the son of Hamilcar, a veteran commander in Spain. He had his army near a city called Amtorgis.
which seemed on the point of breaking out. The senate thereupon decreed that Quintus Fulvius Flaccus should enlist five thousand infantry and four hundred cavalry, and should seeB.C. 215 to it that that legion should be transported to Sardinia at the first opportunity; also that he should send whomever he thought best with full authority, to carry on the war until Mucius should recover. For that duty Titus Manlius Torquatus was sent, a man who had been consul twice and censor, and in his consulship had conquered the Sardinians.In his first consulship, 235 B.C.; cf. xxii. 7. About the same time a fleet which had been sent from Carthage also to Sardinia, under command of the Hasdrubal who was surnamed Calvus, was damaged by a terrible storm and driven to the Balearic Islands. And there the ships were beached, to such an extent had not only the rigging but also the hulls been injured; and while undergoing repairs they caused a considerable loss of time.
s and pitched camp by the river Anapus,The small river of Syracuse, emptying into the Great Harbour. Near its mouth was a Roman camp; xxxiii. 3. about eight miles away. About the same time it so happened that fifty-five warships of the Carthaginians under Bomilcar sailed from the open sea into the Great Harbour of Syracuse, and also a Roman fleet of thirty quinqueremes debarked the first legion at Panormus.Now Palermo; the chief city of Carthaginian Sicily, until taken by the Romans in 254 B.C.; Polybius I. xxxviii. fin. And the war could be considered as now diverted from Italy, so intent were both nations upon Sicily. Himilco, thinking that the legion which had been landed at Panormus would certainly fall a prey to him on its way to Syracuse, was baffled by its route. For the Carthaginian led his troops along an inland road, while the legion, escorted by the fleet, made its way along the coast to Appius Claudius, who with a part of his forces had advanced as far a
, others that with a few men he made his escape to a tower near the camp; that fire was lighted around this, and so, by burning the doors which they had been unable to force in any way, they captured the tower and all were slain in it along with the commander himself. In the eighth yearCorrect, though inconsistent with Livy's general chronology, which would make it the seventh year; cf. XXI. xxxii. 3. In xxxviii. 6 also Livy has followed an authority who placed the disasters in Spain in 211 B.C.; cf. note on xxxii. 1. after his arrival in Spain Gnaeus Scipio was killed, on the twenty-ninth day after the death of his brother. Grief for their deaths was not greater in Rome than throughout Spain; in fact among the citizens the destruction of armies and the loss of a province and the national disaster claimed a part in their sorrow, while all Spain mourned for the generals themselves and missed them, Gnaeus more than Publius, because he had been longer in command and had earl
is men inside the walls. On the next day Hannibal, supposing that the consul, elated by success, would engage in a regular battle, drew up his line between the camp and the city. But on seeing that no one stirred from the usualB.C. 215 defence of the city and that nothing was entrusted to a rash hope, he returned with nothing accomplished to Tifata. At the same time that the siege of Cumae was raised, Tiberius Sempronius, surnamed Longus,This Sempronius was consul with P. Scipio in 218 B.C., and defeated by Hannibal at the Trebia; XXI. vi. 3 and liv ff. also fought successfully in Lucania, near Grumentum, with Hanno the Carthaginian. He slew above two thousand men, and captured two hundred and eighty soldiers and some forty-one military standards. Driven out of Lucanian territory, Hanno withdrew into the land of the Bruttians. And three towns of the Hirpini, Vercellium, Vescellium and Sicilinum, which had revolted from the Roman people, were forcibly recovered by Mar
and returned to Philip. Thus it became known that the ambassadors had been captured with the letter. And so the king, not knowing what had been agreed upon between his ambassadors and Hannibal, and what message the latter's ambassadors were to have brought to him, sent another embassy with the same instructions. As ambassadors to Hannibal there were sent Heraclitus, surnamed Scotinus,This term (The Obscure) had been applied to the early philosopher of Ephesus of the same name, ca. 500 B.C. A pointless marginal note may have got into the text here, displacing the adjective of place which would be expected with this unknown Heraclitus. and Crito, the Boeotian, and Sositheus, of Magnesia. These succeeded in carrying and in bringing back instructions; but the summer was over before the king could make any active preparations. So effectual was the capture of a single ship and ambassadors in postponing a war which threatened the Romans. Also in the vicinity of Capua both c
ius of AntiumValerius, a contemporary of Claudius, wrote a voluminous history from the founding of Rome in upwards of 75 books. Here by exception his figures for the enemy slain are very moderate. relates that one camp was captured, that of Mago, and seven thousand of the enemy slain; that in a second battle they sallied out and fought with Hasdrubal; that ten thousand were slain, four thousand three hundred and thirty captured. PisoL. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, the annalist, was consul in 133 B.C. His work, here cited for the last time in the extant Livy, probably consisted of seven books, beginning with the founding of the city. states that five thousand men were slain from an ambush, while Mago was pursuing in disorder our retreating men. In all of them great is the name of Marcius the general. And to his real fame they add even marvels: that as he was speaking a flame burst from his head without his knowledge, causing great alarm among the soldiers who stood around him.
ose overtaken by the sword —they lostB.C. 212 possession of the camp. Thus in a night and a day two camps of the enemy were taken by assault under the command of Lucius Marcius. That about thirty-seven thousand of the enemy were slain is the statement of Claudius,I.e. Q. Claudius Quadrigarius, who wrote in the time of Sulla. His history, in at least 23 books, began with the capture of the city by the Gauls. Acilius' Greek history of Rome had begun with the founding of the city. In 155 B.C. Acilius acted as interpreter when the three Greek philosophers, Carneades among them, appeared before the senate. who translated Acilius' annals out of Greek into the Latin language; that about one thousand eight hundred and thirty were captured and a vast amount of booty taken. And in this he says that there was a silver shield weighing a hundred and thirty-seven pounds, bearing the likeness of Hasdrubal Barca. Valerius of AntiumValerius, a contemporary of Claudius, wrote a volum
.C. His work, here cited for the last time in the extant Livy, probably consisted of seven books, beginning with the founding of the city. states that five thousand men were slain from an ambush, while Mago was pursuing in disorder our retreating men. In all of them great is the name of Marcius the general. And to his real fame they add even marvels: that as he was speaking a flame burst from his head without his knowledge, causing great alarm among the soldiers who stood around him. They say that as a memorial of his victory over the Carthaginians, down to the burning of the Capitol there was in the temple a shield called the Marcian, bearing a likeness of Hasdrubal.Pliny (N.H. XXXV. 14) says this shield hung above the door of the Capitoline temple until the fire of 84 B.C. —Thereafter the situation in Spain was quiet for a long time, since both sides, after receiving and inflicting such losses upon each other, hesitated to risk a decisiveB.C. 212 engagement.
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