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n king of Rome." A year later P. Clodius For the character of Clodius, see p. 169, below. began to speak of him in the same terms. Clodius, indeed, continued to pursue him till he accomplished his banishment and the confiscation of his property. Almost the whole time from his consulship till the year of his banishment was spent in seeking support against his enemies. He attached himself more closely to Pompey, and pleaded causes of all kinds to win friends, but his efforts were useless. In B.C. 60 Roman politics took a turn extremely unfavorable to Cicero. Pompey, who on his return from the East had been unfairly treated by the extreme senatorial party, allied himself with the democratic leaders, Caesar and Crassus, in a coalition often called the First Triumvirate. As a result, the Senate became for a time almost powerless, and everything was in the hands of the popular party. The next year, Caesar, as consul, procured the passage of an iniquitous law for dividing the fertile and
d it soon became clear that there could be no peace except by the complete victory of a single aspirant for the supremacy. Octavianus at first joined with the Senate against Antony, but he soon broke with the constitutional authorities, and, in B.C. 43, formed with Antony and Lepidus the coalition known as the Second Triumvirate. A merciless proscription at once began. Octavianus had every reason to be grateful to Cicero, but he was of a cold and ungenerous nature, and when Antony demanded hisst of proscribed citizens. Cicero was at this time at his Tusculan villa. He made a half-hearted attempt to escape from Italy, but was overtaken near his villa at Formiae by the soldiers of the triumvirs, and met his death with firmness (Dec. 7, B.C. 43). Antony satisfied his hatred by indignities to the mangled remains. The career of Cicero is a remarkable example of a sudden rise, followed by an utter collapse and fall. His rise was the natural result of his own ability, industry, and ambiti
kindness and respect, and allowed him once more to return to Rome. From this time until the assassination of Caesar in B.C. 44, Cicero remained for the most part in retirement at his Tusculan villa, absorbed in literary pursuits, though in B.C. 46 now seemed to be thoroughly given over to a life of dignified literary retirement, when the murder of Caesar (March 15, B.C. 44) once more plunged the state into a condition of anarchy. From the Murder of Caesar to the Death of Cicero (B.C. 44-43B.C. 44-43) Though Cicero had no share in the conspiracy against Caesar, his sympathy was counted on by Brutus and Cassius, and he hailed the death of the Dictator as the restoration of the republic. But the conspirators had made no adequate provision for carmore to the country. About this time were written the De Divinatione, De Fato, De Amicitia and De Officiis. and in July, B.C. 44, set out for a journey to Greece, but, changing his plans in consequence of better news from Rome, he returned to the ci
lly Antonius and Crassus, who discoursed with him on literary subjects, so that they became in a manner his teachers. He received instruction from ArchiasSee p. xxxix.; he sought the society of L. Accius, the poet, and he studied the art of delivery in the theatre, becoming intimately acquainted with the great actors Roscius and Aesopus. He practiced many kinds of composition, but his most important means of education, as he tells us, was translation from the Greek. At the age of sixteen (B.C. 90), Cicero received the toga virilis (the "coming out" of a Roman boy), and from that time he devoted himself to law and statesmanship as well as oratory. For this purpose he was put under the charge of Mucius Scaevola, the augur, and later he attached himself to the no less celebrated Pontifex of the same name. In B.C. 89 he served one campaign in the army under Cn. Pompeius Strabo. After this short military experience, he returned with still greater vigor to his literary and political studi
of the proposal of Manilius to invest Pompey with the command of the war against Mithridates. Pro A. CLUENTIO HABITODefence of Cluentius against the charge of poisoning his stepfather Oppianicus, brought by the younger Oppianicus, instigated by Sassia, the mother of Cluentius. 63De LEGE AGRARIAAgainst the Agrarian Law of Rullus. Three orations: the first delivered in the Senate and the others before the people. Pro C. RABIRIODefence of Rabirius on the charge of killing Saturninus, about B.C. 100. In L. CATILINAOn the Conspiracy of Catiline. Four orations: the first and last delivered in the Senate, the second and third before the people. Pro L. MURENADefence of Murena on a charge of bribery brought by Sulpicius, the defeated candidate for the consulship. (Following previous orations on the same side by Hortensius and Crassus.) 62Pro P. CORNELIO SULLADefence of Sulla from the charge of sharing in Catiline's conspiracy. Pro A. LICINIO ARCHIADefence of the claim of the poet Archia
spite of the fact that the Senate was as a class on the side of the accused, who was also supported by many of the most influential men of the state. But it was, on the other hand, a popular cause, and many of the most decent of the nobility favored it. The orator's success, by force of talent and honest industry, against the tricks of Verres and his counsel Hortensius broke the domination of this rival in the courts, See p. 303, below. and made Cicero the first advocate of his time. In B.C. 69 Cicero became curule aedile, and in B.C. 67 he was elected praetor with great unanimity. In the latter year began the agitation for the Manilian Law, See p. 66, below. by his advocacy of which Cicero endeared himself to the people and gained the favor of Pompey, whose powerful support was a kind of bulwark against the envious and exclusive nobility. In his praetorship (B.C. 66) he was allotted to the presidency of the Court for Extortion, See p. lxv, N.1 and in this, as in all his public o
he next year, Caesar, as consul, procured the passage of an iniquitous law for dividing the fertile and populous territory of Campania among needy citizens of Rome. Cicero refused to serve on the board appointed to execute this law. Thus he not only exasperated the mob, but brought down upon himself the resentment of the triumvirs,who, though two of them, Caesar and Pompey, still professed to be his personal friends, refused to protect him against the attacks of his enemies. Accordingly, in B.C. 58, Clodius, then tribune, In order to be eligible for this oflice, Clodius, by birth a patrician, had procured his adoption into a plebeian family. His express purpose in the whole transaction was to accomplish the ruin of Cicero. For the cause of his animosity, see note on Defence of Milo, sect. 13 (p. 176, l. 14). brought forward a law that whoever had put to death a Roman citizen, without trial, "should be denied the use of fire and water" (the Roman formula for banishment). This bill was
edonia, until November, when he removed to Dyrrachium. His friends at Rome were constantly agitating for his recall, but without success. The next year, however, B.C. 57, it suited the designs of Pompey, then once more inclining to the senatorial party, to allow his return. His influence with the nobility as well as with the equesy and the Senate, which brought to the city the citizens of the Municipia and the Italian colonies ("the country members"), See p. liii. a law was passed, Aug. 4, B.C. 57, revoking the decree of exile. Cicero arrived in Rome September 4. His journey through Italy was like a continuous triumphal procession, and to his exalted imaginat the bar on his own behalf and that of his friends, as well as at the request of the powerful leaders. He secured the restoration of his property, Pro Domo Sua (B.C. 57). and defended Sestius, Pro P. Sestio, on a charge of assault (B.C. 56). who had been active in his recall. Toward the end of this period he also defended Milo fo
the branches of a liberal education under Diodotus the Stoic. When about twenty-five years of age, Cicero began his active career. It was customary to win one's spurs by attacking some political opponent; but this was contrary to Cicero's pacific nature, and throughout his life he prided himself on always taking the side of the defence. His first oratorical efforts have not been preserved to us. The earliest of his orations which we possess is his defence of P. Quinctius in a civil action (B.C. 81). This suit involved no political question; but no case at that time could be entirely free from politics in one form or another, and nothing is more significant of Cicero's character than the skill with which he constantly used political bias for his client's advantage without seeming to take sides. To defend Quinctius was a bold undertaking for a young advocate; for the opposing counsel was the great orator Hortensius, backed by powerful influence on behalf of the plaintiff. The case, too
s and designs. In this same year he proposed a measure which gave Pompey extraordinary powers over the provincial grain market, for the purpose of securing the city against scarcity of provisions. Next year (B.C. 56) he spoke strongly in favor of continuing Caesar's proconsular authority in Gaul. See the oration De Consularibus Provinciis. With Crassus, the third "triumvir," Cicero had never been on good terms, but, at the request of the other two triumvirs, he became reconciled with him in B.C. 55, shortly before the latter set out on his fatal expedition against the Parthians. During these years, becoming less and less important in politics, Cicero began to devote himself more to literature, and wrote the De Oratore, the Republic, and the treatise De Legibus. He also continued his activity at the bar on his own behalf and that of his friends, as well as at the request of the powerful leaders. He secured the restoration of his property, Pro Domo Sua (B.C. 57). and defended Sestius,
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