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ged to it or to the CAPITOLIUM VETUS (q.v.) cannot be determined. Lightning frequently struck on the Capitol and did much damage, probably to the temple itself (Cic. Cat. iii. 19; de Div. i. 20; ii. 45; Cass. Dio xli. 14; xlii. 26; xlv. 17; xlvii. 10), and Augustus restored it at great expense, probably about 26 B.C., but without placing his own name upon it (Mon. Anc. iv. 9). It is thrice mentioned in the Acta Lud. Saec. (CIL vi. 32323. 9, 29, 70). Further injury by lightning is recorded in 9 B.C. (Cass. Dio Iv. I) and 56 A.D. (Tac. Ann. xiii. 24). In 69 A.D. the second temple, though ungarrisoned and unplundered, was burned when the Capitol was stormed by the Vitellians (Tac. Hist. iii. 71; Suet. Vit. 15; Cass. Diolxiv. 17; Stat. Silv. v. 3. 195-200; Hier. a. Abr. 2089), and rebuilt by Vespasian on its original lines but with still greater height (Tac. Hist. iv. 4, 9, 53; Suet. Vesp. 8; Cass. Dio lxv. 7. I ; Plut. Popl. 15; Aur. Vict. Caes. 9. 7; ep. de Caes. 9. 8; Zon. xi. 17). Coin
. i. 10; Liv. Epit. xiv.). See BC 1923, 304; 1925, 161-169, 191-200; JRS 1914, 183; Van Buren, Terracotta Revetments, 47. In 193 B.C. the aediles M. Aemilius Lepidus and L. Aemilius Paullus placed gilt shields on the pediment (Liv. xxxv. 10). In 179 B.C. the walls and columns were covered anew with stucco (Liv. xl. 51. 3), and a copy of the dedicatory inscription of L. Aemilius Regillus, from the temple of the LARES PERMARINI (q.v.), was placed over the door (ib. 52). A little later a mosaic pavs well as of dedicatory offerings and trophies of victory (see Rosch. ii. 728-730; Jord. i. 2. 16-18), of which the earliest recorded was a golden crown presented by the Latins in 459 (Liv. ii. 22. 6). The number of these became so great that in 179 B.C. it was necessary to remove some of the statues and many of the shields affixed to the columns (Liv. xl. 51. 3). This first temple was burned to the ground on 6th July, 83 B.C. (Cic. Cat. iii. 9; Sail. Cat. 47. 2; Tac. Hist. iii. 72; App. BC i.
NH xxviii. 16; xxxv. 157; Fest. 274; Plut. Popl. 13). This was replaced in 296 B.C. by another, probably of bronze (Liv. x. 23. 12). There is no doubt that pediment and roof were decorated with terra cotta figures, among them a statue of Summanus 'in fastigio' (perhaps therefore an acroterion), the head of which was broken off by a thunderbolt in 275 B.C. (Cic. de Div. i. 10; Liv. Epit. xiv.). See BC 1923, 304; 1925, 161-169, 191-200; JRS 1914, 183; Van Buren, Terracotta Revetments, 47. In 193 B.C. the aediles M. Aemilius Lepidus and L. Aemilius Paullus placed gilt shields on the pediment (Liv. xxxv. 10). In 179 B.C. the walls and columns were covered anew with stucco (Liv. xl. 51. 3), and a copy of the dedicatory inscription of L. Aemilius Regillus, from the temple of the LARES PERMARINI (q.v.), was placed over the door (ib. 52). A little later a mosaic pavement was laid in the cella (Plin. NH xxxvi. 185), and in 142 the ceiling was gilded (Plin. NH xxxiii. 57). The temple stood in t
lium (Plin. NH xxxiv. 77). Cf. CIL i². 725, 730-732=vi. 30920-4 for dedicatory inscriptions set up at this temple. Whether vi. 30928 (with which go 30921, 30923; cf. ib. is. 732) belonged to it or to the CAPITOLIUM VETUS (q.v.) cannot be determined. Lightning frequently struck on the Capitol and did much damage, probably to the temple itself (Cic. Cat. iii. 19; de Div. i. 20; ii. 45; Cass. Dio xli. 14; xlii. 26; xlv. 17; xlvii. 10), and Augustus restored it at great expense, probably about 26 B.C., but without placing his own name upon it (Mon. Anc. iv. 9). It is thrice mentioned in the Acta Lud. Saec. (CIL vi. 32323. 9, 29, 70). Further injury by lightning is recorded in 9 B.C. (Cass. Dio Iv. I) and 56 A.D. (Tac. Ann. xiii. 24). In 69 A.D. the second temple, though ungarrisoned and unplundered, was burned when the Capitol was stormed by the Vitellians (Tac. Hist. iii. 71; Suet. Vit. 15; Cass. Diolxiv. 17; Stat. Silv. v. 3. 195-200; Hier. a. Abr. 2089), and rebuilt by Vespasian on it
od, and on the apex of the pediment was a terra cotta group, Jupiter in a quadriga, by the same Etruscan artist as the statue in the cella (Plin. NH xxviii. 16; xxxv. 157; Fest. 274; Plut. Popl. 13). This was replaced in 296 B.C. by another, probably of bronze (Liv. x. 23. 12). There is no doubt that pediment and roof were decorated with terra cotta figures, among them a statue of Summanus 'in fastigio' (perhaps therefore an acroterion), the head of which was broken off by a thunderbolt in 275 B.C. (Cic. de Div. i. 10; Liv. Epit. xiv.). See BC 1923, 304; 1925, 161-169, 191-200; JRS 1914, 183; Van Buren, Terracotta Revetments, 47. In 193 B.C. the aediles M. Aemilius Lepidus and L. Aemilius Paullus placed gilt shields on the pediment (Liv. xxxv. 10). In 179 B.C. the walls and columns were covered anew with stucco (Liv. xl. 51. 3), and a copy of the dedicatory inscription of L. Aemilius Regillus, from the temple of the LARES PERMARINI (q.v.), was placed over the door (ib. 52). A little l
ata), the costume afterwards worn by Roman generals when celebrating a triumph (Liv. x. 7. IO; xxx. 15. II-12; Iuv. x. 38; Hist. Aug. Alex. 40; Gord. 4; Prob. 7; Fest. 209; Serv. Aen. xi. 334; Marquardt, Privatl. 542-543 ; cf. SR ii. 1914, 254-256). The entablature was of wood, and on the apex of the pediment was a terra cotta group, Jupiter in a quadriga, by the same Etruscan artist as the statue in the cella (Plin. NH xxviii. 16; xxxv. 157; Fest. 274; Plut. Popl. 13). This was replaced in 296 B.C. by another, probably of bronze (Liv. x. 23. 12). There is no doubt that pediment and roof were decorated with terra cotta figures, among them a statue of Summanus 'in fastigio' (perhaps therefore an acroterion), the head of which was broken off by a thunderbolt in 275 B.C. (Cic. de Div. i. 10; Liv. Epit. xiv.). See BC 1923, 304; 1925, 161-169, 191-200; JRS 1914, 183; Van Buren, Terracotta Revetments, 47. In 193 B.C. the aediles M. Aemilius Lepidus and L. Aemilius Paullus placed gilt shield
lut. de Iside 71 ; cf. Ov. Fast. i. 201), and the Sibylline books that had been kept in a stone chest (Dionys. iv. 62), but the temple treasure was carried in safety to Praeneste by the younger Marius (Plin. NH xxxiii. 16). The rebuilding was taken in hand by Sulla (Val. Max. ix. 3. 8; Tac. Hist. iii. 72), who is said to have brought the white marble Corinthian columns of the Olympieion in Athens to Rome for this temple (Plin. NH xxxvi. 45). They do not seem to have been used, for coins of 43 B.C. Add a coin of the gens Volteia (Babelon, ii. 565 ; BM. Rep. i. 388. I, where it is dated after 83 B.C.). The temple was areostyle, and its pediment was dedicated 'tuscanico more,' probably with statues of gilt bronze (Vitr. iii. 3. 35, quoted on p. 255). See BC 1925, 169-176. It is also represented, with its lofty podium, on one of the Boscoreale cups (Mon. Piot, v. (1899) pl. xxxvi. 2; Rostowzew, History of the Ancient World, ii. Rome, 186), where an eagle is clearly visible in the pedime
e great altar of Jupiter (ara Iovis), where solemn sacrifices were offered at the beginning of the year, at the celebration of triumphs, and on some other occasions (Suet. Aug. 94; Zonaras viii. I; Fest. 285). This temple became a repository of works of art of many sorts, the gifts of Roman generals and foreigners, as well as of dedicatory offerings and trophies of victory (see Rosch. ii. 728-730; Jord. i. 2. 16-18), of which the earliest recorded was a golden crown presented by the Latins in 459 (Liv. ii. 22. 6). The number of these became so great that in 179 B.C. it was necessary to remove some of the statues and many of the shields affixed to the columns (Liv. xl. 51. 3). This first temple was burned to the ground on 6th July, 83 B.C. (Cic. Cat. iii. 9; Sail. Cat. 47. 2; Tac. Hist. iii. 72; App. BC i. 83, 86; Obseq. 57; Plut. Sulla 27; Cassiod. ad a. 671), with the statue of Jupiter (Plut. de Iside 71 ; cf. Ov. Fast. i. 201), and the Sibylline books that had been kept in a stone
n 459 (Liv. ii. 22. 6). The number of these became so great that in 179 B.C. it was necessary to remove some of the statues and many of the shields affixed to the columns (Liv. xl. 51. 3). This first temple was burned to the ground on 6th July, 83 B.C. (Cic. Cat. iii. 9; Sail. Cat. 47. 2; Tac. Hist. iii. 72; App. BC i. 83, 86; Obseq. 57; Plut. Sulla 27; Cassiod. ad a. 671), with the statue of Jupiter (Plut. de Iside 71 ; cf. Ov. Fast. i. 201), and the Sibylline books that had been kept in a storinthian columns of the Olympieion in Athens to Rome for this temple (Plin. NH xxxvi. 45). They do not seem to have been used, for coins of 43 B.C. Add a coin of the gens Volteia (Babelon, ii. 565 ; BM. Rep. i. 388. I, where it is dated after 83 B.C.). The temple was areostyle, and its pediment was dedicated 'tuscanico more,' probably with statues of gilt bronze (Vitr. iii. 3. 35, quoted on p. 255). See BC 1925, 169-176. It is also represented, with its lofty podium, on one of the Boscoreale
one of the wonders of the world (Cassiod. Var. vii. 6). In 571, however, Narses appears to have removed the statues, or many of them: Chron. Min. i. 336 (571), p. c. lustini Aug. iiii anno. De Neapolim egressus Narsis ingressus Romam et deposuit palatii eius statuam et Capitolium (see BCr 1867, 22; Hilsen cit.) The bull of Anacletus I (1130-8) refers to it as templum maius quod respicit super Alafantum (v. ELEPHAS HERBARIUS). The history of its destruction is little known down to the sixteenth century (Nibby, Roma Antica i. 505 ff.; cf. Jord. i. 2. 32-34) when the Caffarelli built their palace on its ruins (LS ii. 94-96). Excavations and borings (Ann. d. Inst. x865, 382; 1876, 145-172; Mon. d. Inst. viii. pi. 23. 2; x. pl. 30 a; BC 1875, 165-189; 1876, 31-34; Bull. d. Inst. 1882, 276, NS 1896, 161; 1921, 38), with the information given by Vitruvius (iii. 3. 5) and Dionysius (iv. 61), have established the general plan of the temple, which remained the same for the successive rebuildi
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