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VIVARIUM an enclosure in which wild beasts intended for use in the amphitheatre were kept (cf. Gell. ii. 20). It is mentioned in one inscription of 241 A.D. (CIL vi. 130), and by Procopius (BG i. 22, 23). Procopius states distinctly that it was close to the porta Praenestina, that its outer walls were low without towers or battlements, and that it opened directly into the city by a gate. This description indicates a rectangular enclosure, just outside the porta Praenestina, between the Aurelian wall where it coincides with the aqua Claudia and the via Labicana (HJ 365-367, 391-392). In the twelfth century and later the castra Praetoria was called Vivarium, and a building just south of it the Vivariolum (Vivaiolo). This fact, together with some evidence supposed to be derived from the alleged place of discovery of the inscription, has been regarded by some as proof that the Vivarium was this building south of the Castra (BC 1876, 188; 1877, 93; LS ii. 247-249; Richter 298; LR 385),