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r the next year were raised by the election of his adherent, L. Afranius, to the consulship for 60 B.C.. Clodius had been absent for a year as quaestor in Sicily, and Cicero, although not foreseeingooked forward with some anxiety to the return of Clodius. 12. A variety of causes conspired in 60 B.C. to weaken the conservative party. The knights, who farmed the provincial revenues, in a larges also weakened by the death of one of its most judicious leaders, Q. Catulus, in the spring of 60 B.C., Att. 1.20.3. by the indifference of others, like Lucullus, and by the ascendency of extremistsh Caesar. The coalition was strengthened by the addition of Crassus, and thus, in the summer of 60 B.C. , the so-called First Triumvirate was secretly formed. Vell. Paterc. 2.44. The triumvirs carried, to prosecute him and to convict him of using violence in his candidacy for the consulship in 60 B.C., under the new law de vi, which was retroactive. The Proconsulship. (Aet. 56-57. B.C. 51-50. E
s criticism. Fam. 12.2.1. The province of Macedonia had at first been assigned to Antony for the year 43,Schmidt, Kämpfe, pp.701-6. but in June, in spite of the opposition of the senate, he secured and Octavius was invested with the imperium and authorized, in codperation with the consuls of 43 B.C., to conduct the war against Antony.Mon. Ancyran. I; Appian B. C. 3.45. He appreciated that at out their successors. Octavius and Hirtius, one of the consuls, left Rome in the early part of 43 B.C. to relieve D. Brutus, Fam. 12.5.2. who was besieged by Antony in Mutina, and Pansa, the other. 43. In the East the cause of the liberatores had been more successful. In the early part of 43 B.C. M. Brutus reached the province of Macedonia, which had been assigned to him by Caesar, and was soon after his elevation to the consulship, marched northward, met Antony near Bononia in Oct., 43 B.C., and with M. Lepidus formed a compact for the adjustment of affairs in Italy and for the prosec
thened the conspiracy, while Caesar's own course in openly assuming supreme power, a course far removed from the more diplomatic policy of his successor Augustus, must have offended the more conservative element. The meeting of the senate on Mar. 15, 44 B.C., furnished a suitable occasion, the presentation of a petition by L. Tillius Cimber a convenient opportunity, and the conspirators accomplished their purpose of assassinating Caesar. Suet. Iul. 81, 82. Cicero and the Liberatores (Aet. 63-6 Bk. 10. Brutus and Cassius in the East were apprised of the course of events in Italy,Cf. Fam. Bk. 12, and Epist. ad Brut. and the senate was urged to take bold action. 42. His efforts were at the outset crowned with success, for on Dec.20, 44 B.C.,Cf. Philipp. 3; Fam. 12.22.3. the senate repealed the law which assigned Gallia Cisalpina and Transalpina to Antony, lengthened the terms of office of D. Brutus and Plancus, and directed the other provincial governors to remain at their posts
in their programme by the election of Caesar to the consulship for 59 B.C., but with Bibulus, Suet. Iul. 39. an extreme aristocrat, as his cotribune P. Vatinius, approved a bill assigning to Caesar, from Mar. 1, 59 B.C., the provinces of Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum, with an army oe no opposition to his adoption or his election, and as late as Nov., 59 B.C., writes in a confident way of the future. Q. fr. 1.2.16 and conhis motion to reconsider was directed was Caesar's agrarian law of 59 B.C., assigning lands in Campania to Pompey's veterans. Success in repundoubtedly lead to an attack upon all the legislation of the year 59 B.C. 19. The sequel of his motion in the senate is best told by Cicer arrival, found political affairs in a turmoil. The lex Vatinia of 59 B.C. (§ 13) had assigned Gallia Cisalpina and Illyricum to Caesar for a period of five years, dating from Mar. 1, 59 B.C. Herzog, 1. p.552. n. 2. By the lex Pompeia Licinia, passed in 55 B.C. (§ 20), Caesar's te
estion must have belonged in most instances to the political party whose interests would be promoted by the success of that side. What could be more natural than that Cicero, belonging to the equestrian class, whose rights and privileges had been so seriously curtailed in the aristocratic reaction of Sulla, should oppose the aristocracy at some points? The aid which his action gave to the democratic cause does not, however, stamp him as a democrat. 5. As a candidate for the aedileship for 69 B.C., and for the praetorship for 66 B.C., Cicero led all of his rivals at the polls.in Pison. 2; de leg. Manil. 2. Both offices he filled with distinction, and although as praetor he showed, as in earlier years, slight democratic tendencies, Herzog, 1. p. 538.his personal integrity and his intimate knowledge of the law made his administration of the office wise and honorable. Throughout this period, even during his incumbency of the two offices just mentioned, Cicero followed unremittingly his
pose of avenging himself upon Cicero. With that end in view he caused himself to be adopted by a plebeian, Fonteius, and secured an election as tribune for the year 58. Cicero would seem to have been blind to his own danger. He knew of the enmity of Clodius, but did not fear him, so that he made no opposition to his adoption or his an attack upon Cicero by securing the passage of certain popular measures, and, having gained the support of the consuls A. Gabinius and L. Piso, between Mar. 20 and 25, 58 B.C., Upon sections 15,16, cf. Cicero's Journey into Exile, by C. L. Smith in Harvard Studies, vol. VII, pp. 65-84. he secured the adoption of a bill enacting: cause of Cicero. At last, Aug. 4, a law was passed in the comitia centuriata authorizing Cicero's return.Att. 4.1.4. Cicero had already come to Dyrrachium in Nov., 58 B.C., in order that he might receive news more quickly, and Aug. 4, 57 B.C., he sailed for Brundisium. He was received most enthusiastically in the towns through w
t. 3.4 (Epist. X.), and, in general, Att. Bk. 3 and Fam. Bk. 14. as all the efforts which his friends made to secure his recall were thwarted by Clodius. The year 57 B.C. opened under better auspices. The consuls P. Lentulus Spinther and Metellus Nepos were friendly, and the tribunes were in the main Cicero's supporters; but all nturiata authorizing Cicero's return.Att. 4.1.4. Cicero had already come to Dyrrachium in Nov., 58 B.C., in order that he might receive news more quickly, and Aug. 4, 57 B.C., he sailed for Brundisium. He was received most enthusiastically in the towns through which he passed on his way to Rome, and in Rome itself, which he reacheing site on the Palatine and damages for the loss of his house and villas. The unanimous acquittal, in Mar., 56 B.C., of P. Sestius, Cicero's foremost champion in 57 B.C., who was prosecuted on a charge de ambitu et de vi, was a decided triumph for Cicero and the Boni. Q. fr. 2.4.1 Furthermore, there was a lack of harmony in the pa
7.5.3. His father's family removed to Rome while Cicero was still a boy, Cicero, when a boy, met Archias at Rome; pro Arch. 1. and here, like other boys of the period, Cicero pursued the study of Greek and Latin literature, rhetoric, and, somewhat later, philosophy and jurisprudence. His studies were interrupted in 89 B.C. by a year's service in the Social War, Philipp. 12.27. but at its close they were taken up again with his old vigor. His chosen profession was that of the law, and in 81 B.C. he made his first appearance at the bar in defending P. Quinctius. A far more important event was his defense of Sex. Roscius of Ameria in the following year. Some political significance attaches to the trial, as Cicero's real antagonist, Chrysogonus, pro Sex. Rosc. 6. was a favorite of the dictator Sulla. 2. Possibly to escape the consequent displeasure of Sulla, but more probably for the sake of his health, Cicero left Rome and spent nearly two years at Athens, Rhodes, and in Asia Mino
59. B.C. 49-48. Epist. XLII.-LIII.) For a good statement of the events of this period, cf. Der Ausbruch des Bürgerkriegs, 49 v. Chr., by H. Nissen, in von Sybel's Historische Zeitschrift for 1881, pp.48-105 and 409-445. 26. Cicero, upon his arrival, found political affairs in a turmoil. The lex Vatinia of 59 B.C. (§ 13) had assigned Gallia Cisalpina and Illyricum to Caesar for a period of five years, dating from Mar. 1, 59 B.C. Herzog, 1. p.552. n. 2. By the lex Pompeia Licinia, passed in 55 B.C. (§ 20), Caesar's term of office was extended for a period of five years, — probably, therefore, to Mar. 1, 49 B.C. Watson, pp.287-290. Special legislation of the year 52 B.C. had allowed Caesar to sue, in 49 B.C., for the consulship, without personally attending the canvass (§ 2 i). His successor in the provinces would not naturally begin his term of office until Jan. 1, 48 B.C., and in accordance with the regular practice in such cases, Caesar might count upon holding his provinces unti<
rized their conduct on many previous occasions Att. 4.2.5.; and finally, when Quintus Cicero took service with Caesar in 54 B.C., Q. fr. 2.10 (12). 4. political opposition to Caesar might have proved the ruin of Quintus. These circumstances may jus, in defending Vatinius at Caesar's request Fam. 1.9.19. and Gabinius at Pompey's, Q. fr. 3.1.15.; Pro Rab. Post. 32. in 54 B.C., and in heaping praises upon Caesar in his oration de Prov. Cons., in 56 B.C. Cicero's own statement in Fam. 1.9, of ht of bribery and political intrigue, Q.fr. 3.3.2. which had prevailed almost uninterruptedly from midsummer of the year 54 B.C., reached its climax in Jan., 52 B.C., in a riotous contest between the followers of Clodius and Milo, which resulted in us two years had paved the way for this result. First of all the death of Julia, Caesar's daughter and Pompey's wife, in 54 B.C., Liv. Epit. 106; Dio Cass. 39.64. and the subsequent refusal of Pompey to enter into another family alliance with Caes
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