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7.5.3. His father's family removed to Rome while Cicero was still a boy, Cicero, when a boy, met Archias at Rome; pro Arch. 1. and here, like other boys of the period, Cicero pursued the study of Greek and Latin literature, rhetoric, and, somewhat later, philosophy and jurisprudence. His studies were interrupted in 89 B.C. by a year's service in the Social War, Philipp. 12.27. but at its close they were taken up again with his old vigor. His chosen profession was that of the law, and in 81 B.C. he made his first appearance at the bar in defending P. Quinctius. A far more important event was his defense of Sex. Roscius of Ameria in the following year. Some political significance attaches to the trial, as Cicero's real antagonist, Chrysogonus, pro Sex. Rosc. 6. was a favorite of the dictator Sulla. 2. Possibly to escape the consequent displeasure of Sulla, but more probably for the sake of his health, Cicero left Rome and spent nearly two years at Athens, Rhodes, and in Asia Mino
his first real appearance in politics six years later as the prosecutor of Verres. Verres, who had been governor of Sicily from 73 to 71 B.C., was charged by the Sicilians with extortion and cruelty. Cicero, who conducted the prosecution, presented the facts in such a masterly way that Hortensius, the advocate of Verres, withdrew from the case, and Verres himself went into exile.Plutarch, Cic. 7, 8; in Verr. 2.2.192. 4. His prosecution of Verres as well as his defense of Roscius Amerinus (80 B.C.) and of Cornelius Sulla (in 62 B.C.) have caused much discussion of Cicero's political tendencies during this early period. All three of these cases had a pronounced political character, and in all three Cicero was the advocate of democratic interests. He defended Roscius against the attacks of Sulla's favorite, during the lifetime of that champion of the aristocratic cause. He prosecuted Verres without mercy, although Verres was backed by the entire senatorial party, which felt that it
ophical attitude, while his work under Molon of Rhodes enabled him to Cultivate a less florid style of oratory than that which characterized his earlier orations. At Athens he also made the acquaintance of T. Pomponius Atticus.de Fin. 5.1. 3. Cicero's marriage to Terentia, a woman of some property and of good family, must have taken place soon after his return to Rome, or just before his departure from the city.Tullia was betrothed in 66 B.C. Cf. Att. 1.3.3. Two years after his return, in 76 B.C., he was quaestor, and had charge of Western Sicily, with Lilybaeum as his headquarters. His achievements in Sicily made little impression at Rome,pro Plancio, 64, 65. but the intimate acquaintance which he gained with the island and its people served him in good stead when he made his first real appearance in politics six years later as the prosecutor of Verres. Verres, who had been governor of Sicily from 73 to 71 B.C., was charged by the Sicilians with extortion and cruelty. Cicero, who
t Hortensius, the advocate of Verres, withdrew from the case, and Verres himself went into exile.Plutarch, Cic. 7, 8; in Verr. 2.2.192. 4. His prosecution of Verres as well as his defense of Roscius Amerinus (80 B.C.) and of Cornelius Sulla (in 62 B.C.) have caused much discussion of Cicero's political tendencies during this early period. All three of these cases had a pronounced political character, and in all three Cicero was the advocate of democratic interests. He defended Roscius againsim to make a parting speech Fam. 5.2.7. on the ground that in punishing the Catilinarian conspirators he had put Roman citizens to death without a trial. Cicero, Clodius, and the Triumvirs. (Aet. 45-48. B.C. 62-59. Epist. III.-IX.) 9. The year 62 B.C. opened with a series of bitter attacks upon the senate by Pompey's tool, the tribune Metellus Nepos, supported by the praetor C. Julius Caesar. Against Cicero, his consulship, and the execution of the conspirators, Metellus made his fiercest on
woman of some property and of good family, must have taken place soon after his return to Rome, or just before his departure from the city.Tullia was betrothed in 66 B.C. Cf. Att. 1.3.3. Two years after his return, in 76 B.C., he was quaestor, and had charge of Western Sicily, with Lilybaeum as his headquarters. His achievements inhis action gave to the democratic cause does not, however, stamp him as a democrat. 5. As a candidate for the aedileship for 69 B.C., and for the praetorship for 66 B.C., Cicero led all of his rivals at the polls.in Pison. 2; de leg. Manil. 2. Both offices he filled with distinction, and although as praetor he showed, as in earlie to link his own fortunes with those of Pompey, led Cicero to approve of the Gabinian law, de leg. Manil. 52 and to lend his active support to the Manilian law in 66 B.C. In supporting the latter measure Cicero delivered his first political speech, and notwithstanding the united opposition of the Optimates, who appreciated the dan
estion must have belonged in most instances to the political party whose interests would be promoted by the success of that side. What could be more natural than that Cicero, belonging to the equestrian class, whose rights and privileges had been so seriously curtailed in the aristocratic reaction of Sulla, should oppose the aristocracy at some points? The aid which his action gave to the democratic cause does not, however, stamp him as a democrat. 5. As a candidate for the aedileship for 69 B.C., and for the praetorship for 66 B.C., Cicero led all of his rivals at the polls.in Pison. 2; de leg. Manil. 2. Both offices he filled with distinction, and although as praetor he showed, as in earlier years, slight democratic tendencies, Herzog, 1. p. 538.his personal integrity and his intimate knowledge of the law made his administration of the office wise and honorable. Throughout this period, even during his incumbency of the two offices just mentioned, Cicero followed unremittingly his
rized their conduct on many previous occasions Att. 4.2.5.; and finally, when Quintus Cicero took service with Caesar in 54 B.C., Q. fr. 2.10 (12). 4. political opposition to Caesar might have proved the ruin of Quintus. These circumstances may jus, in defending Vatinius at Caesar's request Fam. 1.9.19. and Gabinius at Pompey's, Q. fr. 3.1.15.; Pro Rab. Post. 32. in 54 B.C., and in heaping praises upon Caesar in his oration de Prov. Cons., in 56 B.C. Cicero's own statement in Fam. 1.9, of ht of bribery and political intrigue, Q.fr. 3.3.2. which had prevailed almost uninterruptedly from midsummer of the year 54 B.C., reached its climax in Jan., 52 B.C., in a riotous contest between the followers of Clodius and Milo, which resulted in us two years had paved the way for this result. First of all the death of Julia, Caesar's daughter and Pompey's wife, in 54 B.C., Liv. Epit. 106; Dio Cass. 39.64. and the subsequent refusal of Pompey to enter into another family alliance with Caes
59. B.C. 49-48. Epist. XLII.-LIII.) For a good statement of the events of this period, cf. Der Ausbruch des Bürgerkriegs, 49 v. Chr., by H. Nissen, in von Sybel's Historische Zeitschrift for 1881, pp.48-105 and 409-445. 26. Cicero, upon his arrival, found political affairs in a turmoil. The lex Vatinia of 59 B.C. (§ 13) had assigned Gallia Cisalpina and Illyricum to Caesar for a period of five years, dating from Mar. 1, 59 B.C. Herzog, 1. p.552. n. 2. By the lex Pompeia Licinia, passed in 55 B.C. (§ 20), Caesar's term of office was extended for a period of five years, — probably, therefore, to Mar. 1, 49 B.C. Watson, pp.287-290. Special legislation of the year 52 B.C. had allowed Caesar to sue, in 49 B.C., for the consulship, without personally attending the canvass (§ 2 i). His successor in the provinces would not naturally begin his term of office until Jan. 1, 48 B.C., and in accordance with the regular practice in such cases, Caesar might count upon holding his provinces unti<
n the Palatine and damages for the loss of his house and villas. The unanimous acquittal, in Mar., 56 B.C., of P. Sestius, Cicero's foremost champion in 57 B.C., who was prosecuted on a charge de amb harmony in the party of the triumvirs. Emboldened by this state of things, the senate, on Apr. 5, 56 B.C., adopted Cicero's motion ut de agro Campano . . . Idibus Maiis referretur. Fam. 1.9.8. The nishes the explanation of that remarkable change which Cicero's political attitude underwent in 56 B.C. Quintus had promised Pompey that his brother, if recalled, would not oppose the triumvirs. As Rab. Post. 32. in 54 B.C., and in heaping praises upon Caesar in his oration de Prov. Cons., in 56 B.C. Cicero's own statement in Fam. 1.9, of his attitude during this period should be read in this connection. 20. The compact between Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus was renewed at Luca in Apr., 56 B.C., Q. fr. 2.5.3; Suet. Iul. 24. and, in accordance with its terms, Pompey and Crassus were elect
t. 3.4 (Epist. X.), and, in general, Att. Bk. 3 and Fam. Bk. 14. as all the efforts which his friends made to secure his recall were thwarted by Clodius. The year 57 B.C. opened under better auspices. The consuls P. Lentulus Spinther and Metellus Nepos were friendly, and the tribunes were in the main Cicero's supporters; but all nturiata authorizing Cicero's return.Att. 4.1.4. Cicero had already come to Dyrrachium in Nov., 58 B.C., in order that he might receive news more quickly, and Aug. 4, 57 B.C., he sailed for Brundisium. He was received most enthusiastically in the towns through which he passed on his way to Rome, and in Rome itself, which he reacheing site on the Palatine and damages for the loss of his house and villas. The unanimous acquittal, in Mar., 56 B.C., of P. Sestius, Cicero's foremost champion in 57 B.C., who was prosecuted on a charge de ambitu et de vi, was a decided triumph for Cicero and the Boni. Q. fr. 2.4.1 Furthermore, there was a lack of harmony in the pa
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