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said to have amounted to 10,000,000 sesterces. Possibly Cicero received also a share of the profits which C. Antonius, his colleague in the consulship, made in his province. Att. 1.12 2; 1.13.6; 1.14.7; Fam. 5.5. Cicero did not apparently increase his property to any great extent by productive investments. A large part of it in fact was invested in houses and villas in Rome and in the country districts of Italy. Besides his town house upon the Palatine, which he bought of M. Crassus in 62 B.C. for 3,500,000 sesterces, Fam. 5.6.2. Cicero owned villas at Arpinum, Tusculum, Antium, Astura, Formiae, Cumae, Puteoli, and Pompeii, and lodges along some of the more frequented Italian roads. Large sums of money were spent in decorating and furnishing these different residences Att. 2.1.11; 4.2.7. and upon their proper maintenance. When, in addition to these heavy expenses, we bear in mind his great fondness for works of art and literature, Fam. 7.23; Att. 1.9.2; 1.4.3; 1.7; 1.10.4. his
dwells, however, with most pleasure upon Cicero's treatment of his personal dependents. Not only his favorite freedman Tiro, but the very slaves of his household enjoyed his kindness and generosity. 50. This sympathetic sensitiveness in Cicero's nature gives to his character its special charm, and constitutes at the same time its principal weakness. Those moments of exaltation and of depression, those periods when he helplessly fluctuates between different courses of action,E.g. in 58 and 49 B.C. Cf. introductory note to Epist. X. find their explanation in this quality. His humor is determined by the circumstances of the moment. He lacks, therefore, the calm poise of the less impressionable nature. He fails to give things their proper proportions, and consequently his forecasts of the future are generally either too sanguine or too gloomy. It was this quality, of course, which made him an opportunist in politics. A man so constituted could find real pleasure only in Rome. He
b adulescentia iudicavi — obscura et sordidast. Fam. 2.12.2. 51. No sketch, however brief, of Cicero's private life would be complete without some reference to the connection between it and his philosophical work. In the early part of the year 46 B.C. he was divorced from Terentia,Plut. Cic. 41. in November his son Marcus left Rome to pursue his studies in Athens, Att. 12.8 (written Nov.11, 46 B.C.). and, hardest of all to bear, in Feb., 45 B.C., his beloved daughter Tullia died.Schmidt, Br46 B.C.). and, hardest of all to bear, in Feb., 45 B.C., his beloved daughter Tullia died.Schmidt, Briefw. p.271. Cicero was overwhelmed with grief, and at his lonely villa upon a little island in the river Astura, gave himself up to the perusal of such books as he thought would help him to bear his loss 5; and as he gradually gained some control over his feelings, he began the composition of works in a similar vein. His purpose gradually widened until it included the development of a complete philosophical system, and for twelve months he wrote and published philosophical works with incredi
et in ista luce vive: omnis peregrinatio — quad ego ab adulescentia iudicavi — obscura et sordidast. Fam. 2.12.2. 51. No sketch, however brief, of Cicero's private life would be complete without some reference to the connection between it and his philosophical work. In the early part of the year 46 B.C. he was divorced from Terentia,Plut. Cic. 41. in November his son Marcus left Rome to pursue his studies in Athens, Att. 12.8 (written Nov.11, 46 B.C.). and, hardest of all to bear, in Feb., 45 B.C., his beloved daughter Tullia died.Schmidt, Briefw. p.271. Cicero was overwhelmed with grief, and at his lonely villa upon a little island in the river Astura, gave himself up to the perusal of such books as he thought would help him to bear his loss 5; and as he gradually gained some control over his feelings, he began the composition of works in a similar vein. His purpose gradually widened until it included the development of a complete philosophical system, and for twelve months he
The Private Life of Cicero. 45. Cicero's father was in moderate circumstances, and from him Cicero inherited the family estate at Arpinum and a house in the Carinae. The dowery of his wife Terentia amounted to 480,000 sesterces,Plut. Cic. 8. but the larger part of his income was derived from legacies left to him by admirers or by men to whom he had rendered professional service. In 44 B.C. Cicero boasted Philipp. 2.40. that he had received more than 20,000,000 sesterces from this source. And one of his legacies, from the philosopher Diodotus, Att. 2.20.6. The correctness of the text is, however, questioned by Tyrrell, vol. 12. p.35. is said to have amounted to 10,000,000 sesterces. Possibly Cicero received also a share of the profits which C. Antonius, his colleague in the consulship, made in his province. Att. 1.12 2; 1.13.6; 1.14.7; Fam. 5.5. Cicero did not apparently increase his property to any great extent by productive investments. A large part of it in fact was investe
ive. One dwells, however, with most pleasure upon Cicero's treatment of his personal dependents. Not only his favorite freedman Tiro, but the very slaves of his household enjoyed his kindness and generosity. 50. This sympathetic sensitiveness in Cicero's nature gives to his character its special charm, and constitutes at the same time its principal weakness. Those moments of exaltation and of depression, those periods when he helplessly fluctuates between different courses of action,E.g. in 58 and 49 B.C. Cf. introductory note to Epist. X. find their explanation in this quality. His humor is determined by the circumstances of the moment. He lacks, therefore, the calm poise of the less impressionable nature. He fails to give things their proper proportions, and consequently his forecasts of the future are generally either too sanguine or too gloomy. It was this quality, of course, which made him an opportunist in politics. A man so constituted could find real pleasure only in
he perusal of such books as he thought would help him to bear his loss 5; and as he gradually gained some control over his feelings, he began the composition of works in a similar vein. His purpose gradually widened until it included the development of a complete philosophical system, and for twelve months he wrote and published philosophical works with incredible rapidity; but the impulse to the work is to be found in the domestic misfortunes which befell him in the autumn and winter of 46-45 B.C., and the personal element is noticeable in all of his philosophical work, especially in the Tusculan Disputations. We find also in studying his domestic life the main factor which determined his philosophical attitude. He could not accept the doctrines of either of the two most influential schools in his day, - the Epicurean and the Stoic, — because his tender recollections of Tullia made him recoil from the materialism of the one and the coldness of the other. He became, therefore, an