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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith).

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bland deportment to the rest of the world. He attacked his rival grammarians in the bitterest terms, and did not spare the most distinguished men in the state, of which an instance is given by Suetonius and Macrobius (2.6), though they differ in the name of the Roman noble whom he made game of, the former calling him Varro Murena, and the latter Galba. Orbilius lived nearly a hundred years, but had lost his memory long before his death. As he was fifty in B. C. 63, he must have been born in B. C. 1 13, and have died shortly before B. C. 13. A statue was erected to him at Beneventum in the Capitol. He left a son Orbilius, who followed the profession of his father; and a slave and pupil of his, of the name of Scribonius, also attained some celebrity as a grammarian. Orbilius was the author of a work cited by Suetonius under the title of Perialogos, but the name is evidently corrupt. Oudendorp proposed to read Paedagogus, and Ernesti Periautologos. (Suet. de Illustr. Gramm. 9, 19; comp.
Bu'teo 8. (Q.) FABIUS BUTEO, son of the brother of P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus, the younger, must have been the son of Q. Fabius, who was adopted by Q. Fabius Maximus, the conqueror of Hannibal. Buteo was elected quaestor in B. C. 1 34, and was entrusted by his uncle, Scipio, with the command of the 4000 volunteers who enlisted at Rome to serve under Scipio in the war against Numantia. (V. Max. 8.15.4; Appian, App. Hisp. 84.)
Menander of ATHENS (*Me/nandros), of ATHENS, the most distinguished poet of the New Comedy, was the son of Diopeithes and Hegesistrate, and flourished in the time of the successors of Alexander. He was born in Ol. 109. 3, or B. C. 342-1, which was also the birth-year of Epicurus; only the birth of Menander was probably in the former half of the year, and therefore in B. C. 342, while that of Epicurus was in the latter half, B. C. 341. (Suid. s. v.; Clinton, F. H. sub ann.) Strabo also (xiv. p.tly stated. The same inscription, which gives the date of his birth, adds that he died at the age of fifty-two years, in the archonship of Philippus, in the 32nd year of Ptolemy Soter. Clinton shows that these statements refer to the year B. C. 292-1 (F. H vol. ii. p. xv. and sub ann. 342, 291); but, to make up the fifty-two years, we must reckon in both extremes, 342 and 291. The date is confirmed by Eusebius (Chron.); by the anonymous writer on comedy (p. xii.), who adds that Menander died at
onded by the entreaties of the people, and granted by Augustus, who, under the appearance of a refusal, was exceedingly anxious to grant them the honours they solicited. Thus they were declared consuls elect and principes juventutis before they had laid aside the dress of childhood. Caius was nominated to the consulship in B. C. 5, but was not to enter upon it till five years afterwards. He assumed the toga virilis in the same year, and his brothel in B. C. 2. Caius was sent into Asia in B. C. 1, where he passed his consulship in the following year, A. D. 1. About this time Phraates IV., king of Parthia, seized upon Armenia, and Caius accordingly prepared to make war against him, but the Parthian king gave up Armenia, and settled the terms of peace at an interview with Caius on an island in the Euphrates. (A. D. 2.) After this Caius went to take possession of Armenia, but was treacherously wounded before the town of Artagera in this country. Of this wound he never recovered, and di
should be exempt. (Dict. of Antiq. s. v. Ambitious) this, however, is Cicero's version of the principal clause of the Lex Aufidia, and, since it is part of his account of a wit-combat between himself and P. Clodius in the senate (ad Att. 1.16), B. C. 61, it is probably exaggerated. Three years afterwards, B. C. 59, Lurco was one of the witnesses for the defence at the impeachment of L. Valerius Flaccus [L. VALERIUS FLACCUS, No. 15], and then it suited Cicero's purpose to call him an honest man and his good friend (pro Flacc. 4.34). In B. C. 52-1, Lurco prosecuted and procured the conviction of Sextus Clodius, for bringing the corpse of P. Clodius into the Curia Hostilia, and for other acts of violence (Ascon. in Cic. Milon. p. 55, Orelli). Lurco was the maternal grandfather of the empress Livia, wife of Augustus. (Suet. Cal. 23.) He was the first person in Rome who fattened peacocks for sale, and he derived a large income from this source. (Varr. R. R. 3.6; Plin. Nat. 10.20.) [W.B.D]
Li'via 3. LIVIA or LIVILLA, the daughter of Drusus senior and Antonia, and the sister of Germanicus and the emperor Claudius. [See the genealogical table, Vol. I. p. 1076.] In her eleventh year B. C. 1, she was betrothed to C. Caesar, the son of Agrippa and Julia, and the grandson of Augustus. She was subsequently married to her first cousin, Drusus junior, the son of the emperor Tiberius, but was seduced by Sejanus, who both feared and hated Drusus, and who persuaded her to poison her husband, which she accordingly did in A. D. 23. Her guilt was not discovered till the fall of Sejanus, eight years afterwards, A. D. 31, when it was revealed to Tiberius by Apicata, the wife of Sejanus. According to some statements Livia was put to death by Tiberius, but according to others she was spared by the emperor on account of her mother, Antonia, who, however, caused her to be starved to death. Such is the account of Dio Cassius (58.11); but from Tacitus saying (Ann. 6.2) that in A. D. 32 the s
ntulus 39. COSSUS CORNELIUS CN. F. LENTULUS GAETULICUS, son probably of No. 37, is sometimes called Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Cossus. The former, however, is more usual; but as we find on coins both COSSVS CN. F. LENTVLVS, and CN. LENTVLVS COSSVS, it would seem that he might be called indifferently either Cneius or Cossus (Pighius, vol. iii. p. 531). Cossus was originally a family name in the Cornelia gens, and was first assumed as a praenomen by this Lentulus. [COSSUS.] Lentulus was consul B. C. 1, with L. Calpurnius Piso, and in A. D. 6 was sent into Africa, where he defeated the Gaetuli, who had invaded the kingdom of Juba. In consequence of this success he received the surname of Gaetulicus and the ornamenta triumphalia. (D. C. 55.28; Veil. Pat. 2.116; Flor. 4.12.40; Oros. 6.21; Tac. Ann. 4.44.) On the accession of Tiberius in A. D. 14, he accompanied Drusus, who was sent to quell the mutiny of the legions in Pannonia. The mutineers were especially incensed against Lentulus, becau
Laenas 3. M. Popillius Laenas, P. F. P. N., one of the tribunes for establishing a colony near Pisae (Liv. 40.43), was chosen praetor B. C. 1 76 (Liv. 41.18), but obtained leave to stop at Rome instead of going into his province, Sardinia, the command of which was continued to the pro-praetor, Aebutius. Popillius was chosen consul B. C. 172. and sent with an army against the Ligurian mountaineers. He conquered them in a pitched battle, after great slaughter. The remainder of the whole tribe who had escaped from the carnage determined on surrendering themselves to the mercy of the Roman general; but they were all sold as slaves, and their city plundered and destroyed. When this news reached Rome, the senate disapproved of Popillius's proceedings, and decreed, in spite of his haughty and angry remonstrances, that he should restore the Ligurians to liberty, to their country, and, as far as possible, to their property. Popillius, however, acted in direct opposition to this decree. On his
s chief authority for the geographical account of Africa contained in the fifth book of his Natural History. The third book of this work is quoted by Plutarch (Parallel. l.c.). 2. *Peri\ *)Assuri/wn In two books, in which he followed the authority of Berosus. (Tatian, Orat. adv. Graec. 58; Clem. Al. Strom. i. p. 329.) 3. history of Arabia A history of Arabia, which he addressed to C. Caesar (the grandson of Augustus) when that prince was about to proceed on his expedition to the East, B. C. 1. It appears to have contained a general description of the country, and all that was then known concerning its geography, natural productions, &c. It is cited by Pliny as the most trustworthy account of those regions which was known to him (H. N. 6.26, 28, 30, 12.31.). 4. *rwma+kh\ i(stori/a Cited repeatedly by Stephanus of Byzantium (s. vv. *)Aborigi=nes, *)Wsti/a, &c.). Numerous statements quoted by Plutarch, from Juba. without mentioning any particular work, but relating to the early
division of the spoils he obtained from the enemy. (Comp. Diod. vol. p. 519, ed. Wess.; Cic. de Off. 2.11.) The Lusitanians had long been accustomed to support themselves by robbery and rapine; and as they still continued their predatory mode of life after the Romans had become masters of the neighbouring countries, the Roman commanders in Spain resolved to reduce them to submission. Accordingly in B. C. 151 their country was invaded by the propractor Ser. Galba, and in the following year (B. C. 1.50) by the proconsul L. Lucullus as well as by Galba. The Lusitanians in alarm sent offers of submission to Galba, who enticed them to leave their mountain fastnesses by promising to give them fertile lands, and when they had descended into the plains, relying on the word of a Roman general, he surrounded them with his troops and treacherously butchered them. Very few of the Lusitanians escaped, but among the survivors was Viriathus, who was destined to be the avenger of his country's wrong
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