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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith).

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Pericleitus (*Peri/kleitos), a Lesbian lyric musician of the school of Terpander, flourished shortly before Hipponax, that is, a little earlier than B. C. 550. At the Lacedaemonian festival of the Carneia, there were musical contests with the cithara, in which the Lesbian musicians of Terpander's school had obtained the prize from the time of Terpander himself to that of Pericleitus, with whom the glory of the school ceased. (Plut. de Mus. 6. p. 1133d.) [P.
Periander 2. A tyrant of Ambracia, was contemporary with his more famous namesake of Corinth, to whom he was also related, being the son of Gorgus, who was son or brother to Cypselus. The establishment of a branch of the family in Ambracia will be seen to have been quite in accordance with the ambitious policy of the Cypselidae in the west of Greece, as mentioned above. Periander was deposed by the people, probably after the death of the Corinthian tyrant (B. C. 585). The immediate occasion of the insurrection, according to Aristotle, was a gross insult offered by him to one of his favourites. (Arist. Pol. 5.4, 10, ed. Bekk.; Ael. VH 12.35; Perizon. ad loc. ; D. L. 1.98; Menag. ad loc.; Clinton, F. H. sub anno 612; Müller, Dor. 1.6.8, 8.3, 3.9.6.) [E.E
rocuresses of Corinth to be thrown into the sea. Being possessed, as Aristotle tells us, of considerable military skill, he made his government respected abroad, and so provided more effectually for its security at home. Yet very little is recorded of his expeditions. Besides his conquest of Epidaurus, mentioned below, we know that he kept (Coreyra in subjection, and we are told, on the authority of Timaeus, that he took part with Pittacus and the Mytilenaeans in their war against Athens (B. C. 606) for the possession of Sigeium and the surrounding coast. If, however, he was at first a party to the contest, he seems to have acted subsequently as a mediator. (Strab. xiii. p.600 ; Hdt. 5.94, 95; comp. Müll. ad Aesch. Eum. § 42; Clint. F. H. sub anno 606.) Another mode by which he strengthened himself was his alliance with tyrants in other cities of Greece (Miletus, e. g. and Epidaurus), and even with barbarian kings, as with Alyattes of Lydia. On the west of Greece, as Müller remarks (
Periander (*Peri/andros). 1. A son of Cypselus, whom he succeeded as tyrant of Corinth, probably about B. C. 625. By his bitterest opponents his rule was admitted to have been mild and beneficent at first; and, though it is equally certain that it afterwards became oppressive, we must remember that his history has come down to us through the hands of the oligarchical party, which succeeded to power on the overthrow of the Cypselidae, and that suspicion therefore attaches to much of what is recorded of him. In the speech which Herodotus (5.92) puts into the mouth of Sosicles, the Corinthian delegate at Sparta, and which is couched in the language of a strong partisan, the change in question is absurdly ascribed to the advice of Thrasybulus, tyrant of Miletus, whom Periander had consulted on the best mode of maintaining his power, and who is said to have taken the messenger through a corn-field, cutting off, as he went, the tallest ears, and then to have dismissed him without committ
Perennis after the death of Paternus [PATERNUS] in A. D. 183, became sole praefect of the praetorians, and Commodus being completely sunk in debauchery and sloth, virtually ruled the empire. Having, however, rendered himself obnoxious to the soldiery, he was delivered up to them, and put to death, together with his wife and children, in A. D. 186 or 187. The narrative of Dio Cassius, who states that his death was demanded by a deputation of fifteen hundred dartmen, despatched for this special purpose from the turbulent army in Britain, and that these men, after having marched unmolested through France and Italy, on their approach to Rome, overawed the prince, although his own guards were far more numerous, is so improbable that we can scarcely give it credit. Moreover, Dion represents the character of Perennis in a very different light from that in which it is exhibited by other historians. Although he admits that Perennis procured the death of his colleague Paternus, in order that
Perennis after the death of Paternus [PATERNUS] in A. D. 183, became sole praefect of the praetorians, and Commodus being completely sunk in debauchery and sloth, virtually ruled the empire. Having, however, rendered himself obnoxious to the soldiery, he was delivered up to them, and put to death, together with his wife and children, in A. D. 186 or 187. The narrative of Dio Cassius, who states that his death was demanded by a deputation of fifteen hundred dartmen, despatched for this special purpose from the turbulent army in Britain, and that these men, after having marched unmolested through France and Italy, on their approach to Rome, overawed the prince, although his own guards were far more numerous, is so improbable that we can scarcely give it credit. Moreover, Dion represents the character of Perennis in a very different light from that in which it is exhibited by other historians. Although he admits that Perennis procured the death of his colleague Paternus, in order that
Peregri'nus, L. Arme'nius consul A. D. 244 with A. Fulvius Aemilianus, the year in which Philippus ascended the throne.
28-31, ed. Bekk.; Diod. 15.77, 16.2 ; Syncell. p. 263; Flathe, Gesch. Mlacedon. vol. i. p. 39-40; Thirlwall's Greece, vol. v. p. 162-164.) Of the subsequent reign of Perdiccas we have very Little information. We learn only that he was at one time engaged in hostilities with Athens on account of Amphipolis (Aesch. l.c. §§ 32-33), and that he was distinguished for his patronage of men of letters. Among these we are told that Euphraeus, a disciple of Plato, rose to so high a place in his favour, as completely to govern the young king, and exclude from his society all but philosophers and geometers. (Carystius, apud Atthen. xi. pp. 506, e. 508, d.) Perdiccas fell in battle against the Illyrians after a reign of five years, B. C. 359. (Diod. 16.2. The statement of Just. 7.5, that he was killed by Ptolemy of Alorus is clearly erroneous. See, however. Curt. 6.11.26.) He left an infant son, Amyntas, who was, however, excluded from the throne by his uncle Philip. [AMYNTAS, No. 3.] [E.H.
r for the throne, Pausanias, soon compelled both Eurydice and her two sons, Perdiccas and Philip, to have recourse to the assistance of the Athenian general Iphicrates, who drove out the usurper, and re-established Perdiccas upon the throne. Ptolemy seems to have been reinstated in his office of regent or guardian of the young king, under which name he virtually enjoyed the sovereign power, until at length Perdiccas caused him to be put to death, and took the government into his own hands, B. C. 364. (Just. 7.4, 5; Aesch. de Fals. Leg. §§ 28-31, ed. Bekk.; Diod. 15.77, 16.2 ; Syncell. p. 263; Flathe, Gesch. Mlacedon. vol. i. p. 39-40; Thirlwall's Greece, vol. v. p. 162-164.) Of the subsequent reign of Perdiccas we have very Little information. We learn only that he was at one time engaged in hostilities with Athens on account of Amphipolis (Aesch. l.c. §§ 32-33), and that he was distinguished for his patronage of men of letters. Among these we are told that Euphraeus, a disciple of Pl
, to return home. Seuthes, the nephew of the Thracian king, who had been secretly gained over by Perdiccas, was mainly instrumental in bringing about this resolution, in reward for which service Perdiccas gave him his sister Stratonice in marriage. (Thuc. 2.95-101; Diod. 12.50, 51.) From this time we hear no more of the proceedings of Perdiccas for some years, but he appears to have continued always on hosthe terms with Athens, and it was in great part at his instigation that Brasidas in B. C. 424 set out on his celebrated expedition to Macedonia and Thrace. (Thuc. 4.79.) Immediately on the arrival of the Spartan general, Perdiccas made use of his new auxiliary to prosecute a private quarrel of his own with Arrhibaeus, prince of Lyncestis. But Brasidas, though he at first joined his forces with those of the Macedonian king, interposed rather as a mediator than an auxiliary, and soon concluded a treaty with Arrhibaeus, by which proceeding he so much offended Perdiccas, that the latte
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