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marry Olympias, the daughter of the praefect Ablavius, a near relation of the empress Constantia, and who had been betrothed to Constans, the brother of Constantius. Olympias was afterwards poisoned by a mistress of Sapor, an Armenian princess of the name of P'harhandsem. To punish the defection of Arsaces, Sapor invaded Armenia and took Tigranocerta. He was thus involved in a war with the emperor Julian, the successor of Constantius, who opened his famous campaign against the Persians (A. D. 363) in concert with Arsaces, on whose active co-operation the success of the war in a great measure depended. But Julian's sanguine expectations of overthrowing the power of the Sassanidae was destroyed by the pusillanimity, or more probably well calculated treachery, of Arsaces, who withdrew his troops from the Roman camp near Ctesiphon in the month of June, 363. Thence the disastrous retreat of the Romans and the death of Julian, who died from a wound on the 26th of the same month. Jovian,
SACES VI.] king of the Parthians. --B. C. 127. Arsaces or Arshag I., his son.--B. C. 114. Artaces, Artaxes, or Ardashes I., his son.--B. C. 89. Tigranes or Dikran I. (II.), his son.--B. C. 36. Artavasdes or Artawazt I., his son.--B. C. 30. Artaxes II., his son.--B. C. 20. Tigranes II., brother of Artaxes II.--B. C. .... Tigranes III.--B. C. 6. Artavasdes II.--B. C. 5. Tigranes III. reestablished.--B. C. 2. Erato, queen. A. D. 2. Ariobarzanes, a Parthian prince, established by the Romans.--A. D. 4. Artavasdes III. or Artabases, his Son.--A. D. 5. Erato re-established ; death uncertain.-- .... Interregnum.--A. D. 16. Vonones.--A. D. 17. Interregnum.--A. D. 18. Zeno of Pontus, surnamed Artaxias.--... Tigranes IV., son of Alexander Herodes.--A. D. 35. Arsaces II. --A. D. 35. Mithridates of Iberia.--A. D. 51. Rhadamistus of Iberia.--A. D. 52. Tiridates I.--A. D. 60. Tigranes V. of the race of Herodes.--A. D. 62. Tiridates I. re-established by Nero, reigned about eleven years longer. B.
sroes or Khosrew II., surnamed P'hok'hr, or " the Little," the son of Tiridates Mezd.--A. D. 325. Diran or Tiranus I., his son.--A. D. 341. Arsaces or Arshag III., his son. --A. D. 370. Bab or Para.--A. D. 377. Waraztad, usurper.--A. D. 382. Arsaces IV. (and Valarsaces or Wagharshag II., his brother).--A. D. 387. Armenia divided.--A. D. 389. Arsaces IV. dies. Cazavon in Roman Armenia, Chosroes or Khosrew III. in Persarmenia.--A. D. 392. Bahram Shapur (Sapor), the brother of Chosroes III.--A. D. 414. Chosroes re-established by Yezdegerd.--A. D. 415. Shapur or Sapor, the son of Yezdegerd--A. D. 419. Interregnum.--A. D. 422. Ardashes or Ardashir (Artasires) IV.--A. D. 428. End of the kingdom of Armenia. (Comp. Vaillant, Regnum Arsacidarum, especially Elenchus Regum Armeniae Majoris, in the 1st. vol.; Du Four de Longuerue, Annales Arsacidarum, Strasb. 1732; Richter, Histor. Krit. Versuch über die A rsaciden und Sassaniden-Dynastien, Göttingen, 1804; St. Martin, Mémoires historiques et gé
r, or " the Little," the son of Tiridates Mezd.--A. D. 325. Diran or Tiranus I., his son.--A. D. 341. Arsaces or Arshag III., his son. --A. D. 370. Bab or Para.--A. D. 377. Waraztad, usurper.--A. D. 382. Arsaces IV. (and Valarsaces or Wagharshag II., his brother).--A. D. 387. Armenia divided.--A. D. 389. Arsaces IV. dies. Cazavon in Roman Armenia, Chosroes or Khosrew III. in Persarmenia.--A. D. 392. Bahram Shapur (Sapor), the brother of Chosroes III.--A. D. 414. Chosroes re-established by Yezdegerd.--A. D. 415. Shapur or Sapor, the son of Yezdegerd--A. D. 419. Interregnum.--A. D. 422. Ardashes or Ardashir (Artasires) IV.--A. D. 428. End of the kingdom of Armenia. (Comp. Vaillant, Regnum Arsacidarum, especially Elenchus Regum Armeniae Majoris, in the 1st. vol.; Du Four de Longuerue, Annales Arsacidarum, Strasb. 1732; Richter, Histor. Krit. Versuch über die A rsaciden und Sassaniden-Dynastien, Göttingen, 1804; St. Martin, Mémoires historiques et géograph. sur l' Arménie, vol. i.)
the apostle of Armenia.--A. D. 232. Ardashir or Artaxerxes, the first Sassanid of Persia.--A. D. 259. Dertad or Tiridates II., surnamed Medz, the son of Chosroes, established by the Romans.--A. D. 314. Interregnum. Sanadrug seizes northern Armenia, and Pagur southern Armenia, but only for a short time.--A. D. 316. Chosroes or Khosrew II., surnamed P'hok'hr, or " the Little," the son of Tiridates Mezd.--A. D. 325. Diran or Tiranus I., his son.--A. D. 341. Arsaces or Arshag III., his son. --A. D. 370. Bab or Para.--A. D. 377. Waraztad, usurper.--A. D. 382. Arsaces IV. (and Valarsaces or Wagharshag II., his brother).--A. D. 387. Armenia divided.--A. D. 389. Arsaces IV. dies. Cazavon in Roman Armenia, Chosroes or Khosrew III. in Persarmenia.--A. D. 392. Bahram Shapur (Sapor), the brother of Chosroes III.--A. D. 414. Chosroes re-established by Yezdegerd.--A. D. 415. Shapur or Sapor, the son of Yezdegerd--A. D. 419. Interregnum.--A. D. 422. Ardashes or Ardashir (Artasires) IV.--A. D. 428.
t, in 198. It is of course impossible that he should have been seized by Caracalla, who sueceeded his father Septimius Severus in 211. Nor do the Armenians mention any king of that name who was a contemporary either of Septimius Severus or Caracalla. (Moses Choren. 2.65-68.) Tiridates Ii. the son of Vologeses. [TIRIDATES II.] Arsaces Ii. The brother of Artabanus IV., the last Arsacid in Parthia, by whom he was made king of Armenia in the first year of the reign of Alexander Severus. (A. D. 222-223.) When his brother was killed by Artaxerxes (Ardashir), the first Sassanid on the Persian throne, he resisted the usurper, and united his warriors with those of Alexander Severus in the memorable war against Artaxerxes. [SASSANIDAE.] (Procop. de Aedificiis Justin. 3.1; D. C. 80.3, 4; Herodian, 6.2, &c.; Agathias, pp. 65, 134, ed. Paris.) Artavasdes Iii. The ally of Sapor against the emperor Valerian, A. D. 260. (Trebell. Poll. Valerian. 6.) Eusebius (Hist. Eccl. 9.8) mentions a Ch
syria. Several members of it were appointed governors of Armenia by the first khalifs. In A. D. 855, this family became independent in the northern part of Armenia in the country round the upper part of the Euphrates. Adom and Abusahl, the last Ardzrunians, were killed in 1080 by the emperor Nicephorus Botaniates, who united their dominions with the Byzantine empire. VIII. MOHAMMEDAN DYNASTIES. 1. Of Kurdish origin, from A. D. 984 to A. D. 1085. 2. Of Turkoman origin, from A. D. 1084 to A. D. 1312. They resided in different places, and the extent of their dominions varied according to the military success of the khalifs of Egypt and the Seljukian princes. IX. DYNASTIES OF DIFFERENT ORIGIN from the eleventh to the fourteenth century. Some kings belonged to the Pagratidae, among whom was the celebrated Haython I. or Hethum in 1224; and some were Latin princes, among whom was Leo VI. of Lusignan, who was driven out by the khalif of Egypt, and died in Paris in 1393, the last king of
98. It is of course impossible that he should have been seized by Caracalla, who sueceeded his father Septimius Severus in 211. Nor do the Armenians mention any king of that name who was a contemporary either of Septimius Severus or Caracalla. (Moses Choren. 2.65-68.) Tiridates Ii. the son of Vologeses. [TIRIDATES II.] Arsaces Ii. The brother of Artabanus IV., the last Arsacid in Parthia, by whom he was made king of Armenia in the first year of the reign of Alexander Severus. (A. D. 222-223.) When his brother was killed by Artaxerxes (Ardashir), the first Sassanid on the Persian throne, he resisted the usurper, and united his warriors with those of Alexander Severus in the memorable war against Artaxerxes. [SASSANIDAE.] (Procop. de Aedificiis Justin. 3.1; D. C. 80.3, 4; Herodian, 6.2, &c.; Agathias, pp. 65, 134, ed. Paris.) Artavasdes Iii. The ally of Sapor against the emperor Valerian, A. D. 260. (Trebell. Poll. Valerian. 6.) Eusebius (Hist. Eccl. 9.8) mentions a Christian
wing chronological table, which differs in some points from the preceding narrative, is taken from St. Martin, and is founded upon the Armenian histories of Moses Chorenensis and Faustus Byzantinus, compared with the Greek and Roman authors. A. The first or elder Branch in Armenia Magna. B. C. 149. Valarsaces or Wagharshag I., founder of the Armenian dynasty of the Arsacidae, established on the throne of Armenia by his brother, Mithridates Arsaces [ARSACES VI.] king of the Parthians. --B. C. 127. Arsaces or Arshag I., his son.--B. C. 114. Artaces, Artaxes, or Ardashes I., his son.--B. C. 89. Tigranes or Dikran I. (II.), his son.--B. C. 36. Artavasdes or Artawazt I., his son.--B. C. 30. Artaxes II., his son.--B. C. 20. Tigranes II., brother of Artaxes II.--B. C. .... Tigranes III.--B. C. 6. Artavasdes II.--B. C. 5. Tigranes III. reestablished.--B. C. 2. Erato, queen. A. D. 2. Ariobarzanes, a Parthian prince, established by the Romans.--A. D. 4. Artavasdes III. or Artabases, his S
ho is called Ardashes III., was a mighty prince, who humbled the armies of Domitian, but was finally driven out by Trajan. Chosroes placed on the throne in his stead Parthamasiris, a Parthian prince. Exedares reigned during forty-two years, from A. D. 78 to 120, but was several times compelled to fly from his kingdom. Parthamasiris the son of Pacorus (Arsaces XXIV.), king of Parthia, and the nephew of Chosroes, who supported him against Trajan. Parthamasiris, reduced to extremity, humbled him, the son of Abgarus. --A. D. 36. Sanadrug or Sanatruces, the son of a sister of Abgares, usurps the throne.--A. D. 58. Erowant, an Arsacid by the female line, usurps the throne; conquers all Armenia; cedes Edessa and Mesopotamia to the Romans.--A. D. 78. Ardashes or Artaxes III. (Exedares or Axidares), the son of Sanadrug, established by Vologeses I., king of the Parthians.--A. D. 120. Ardawazt or Artavasdes IV., son of Ardashes III., reigns only some months.-- A. D. 121. Diran or Tiranus I., h
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