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sympathy with fine and tender feelings, though some allowance may be made for a little assumed ungraciousness of demeanour, in order to keep up his Catonian character. Nowhere in his writings or his speeches do we meet with generous and elevating sentiments. His strong will and powerful passions of anger and ambition were guided by a keen and cold intellect, and a practical, utilitarian, common sense. Even in the closing years of his protracted life, Cato had no repose. In his 81st year, B. C. 153, he was accused by C. Cassius of some capitale crimen (the nature of which is not recorded), and defended himself in person with unbroken strength, with unfaltering voice, and with unshaken memory. " How hard it is," he said, " for one whose life has been past in a preceding generation, to plead his cause before the men of the present!" (V. Max. 8.7.1; Plut. Cato, 15.) In the very year before his death, he was one of the chief instigators of the third Punic war. The anxiety of the senate
for pure morality, and strict old-fashioned virtue. He was looked upon as the living type and representative of the ideal ancient Roman. His very faults bore the impress of national character, and humoured national prejudice. To the advancement of such a man opposition was vain. In B. C. 195, in the 39th year of his age, he was elected consul with his old friend and patron L. Valerius Flaccus. During this consulship a strange scene took place. peculiarly illustrative of Roman manners. In B. C. 215, at the height of the Punic war, a law had been passed on the rogation of the tribune Oppius, that no woman should possess more than half an ounce of gold, nor wear a garment of divers colours, nor drive a carriage with horses at less distance than a mile from the city, except for the purpose of attending the public celebration of religious rites. Now that Hannibal was conquered; that Rome abounded with Carthaginian wealth; and that there was no longer any necessity for women to contribute
warlike exploits and rigidly simple character were fresh in the memory of the old, and were often talked of with admiration in the neighbourhood. The ardour of the youthful Cato was kindled. He resolved to imitate the character, and hoped to rival the glory, of Dentatus. Opportunity was not wanting : in the school of Hannibal he took his first military lessons, namely in the campaign of B. C. 217. There is some discrepancy among historians as to the events of Cato's early military life. In B. C. 214 he served at Capua, and Drumann (Gesch. Rows, v. p. 99) imagines that already, at the age of 20, he was a military tribune. Fabius Maximus had now the command in Campania, during the year of his fourth consulshlip. The old general admitted the young soldier to the honour of intimate acquaintance. While Fabius communicated the valued results of military experience, he omitted not to instil his own personal and political partialities and dislikes into the ear of his attached follower. At th
an humble cottage which had been tenanted, after three triumphs, by its owner M. Curius Dentatus, whose warlike exploits and rigidly simple character were fresh in the memory of the old, and were often talked of with admiration in the neighbourhood. The ardour of the youthful Cato was kindled. He resolved to imitate the character, and hoped to rival the glory, of Dentatus. Opportunity was not wanting : in the school of Hannibal he took his first military lessons, namely in the campaign of B. C. 217. There is some discrepancy among historians as to the events of Cato's early military life. In B. C. 214 he served at Capua, and Drumann (Gesch. Rows, v. p. 99) imagines that already, at the age of 20, he was a military tribune. Fabius Maximus had now the command in Campania, during the year of his fourth consulshlip. The old general admitted the young soldier to the honour of intimate acquaintance. While Fabius communicated the valued results of military experience, he omitted not to ins
.40) and Plutarch (Plut. Cat. Ma. 15) he was 90 years old when he died. The exaggerated age, however, is inconsistent within a statement recorded by Plutarch (Cat. Aaj. 1) on the asserted authority of Cato himself. Cato is represented to have said, that he served his first campaign in his 17th year, when Hannibal was over-running Italy. Plutarch, who had the works of Cato before him, but was careless in dates, did not observe that the reckoning of Livy would take back Cato's 17th year to B. C. 222, when there was not a Carthaginian in Italy, whereas the reckoning of Cicero would make the truth of Cato's statement reconcileable with the date of Hannibal's first invasion. When Cato was a very young man, the death of his father put him in possession of a small hereditary estate in the Sabine territory, at a distance from his native town. It was here that he passed the greater part of his boyhood, hardening his body by healthful exercise, superintending and sharing the operations of t
ignorant of the Greek language. Himself an historian and orator, the excellences of Demosthenes and Thucydides made a deep impression upon his kindred mind. In many important cases, however, throughout his life, his conduct was guided by prejudices against classes and nations, whose influence he deemed to be hostile to the simplicity of the old Roman character. It is likely that he had some part in the senatusconsultum which, upon the appearance of Eumenes, king of Pergamus, at Brundisium, B. C. 166, forbade kings to enter Rome, for when Eumenes, upon his former visit, after the war with Antiochus, was received with honour by the senate, and splendidly entertained by the nobles, Cato was indignant at the respect paid to the monarch, refused to go near him, and declared that, " kings were naturally carnivorous animals." He had an antipathy to physicians, because they were mostly Greeks, and therefore unfit to be trusted with Roman lives, inasmuch as all Greeks looked upon the barbarian
haracteristic appellation, since he filled the office of censor with extraodinary repute, and was the only Cato who ever filled it. In order to ascertain the date of Cato's birth, we have to consider the testimony of ancient writers as to his age at the time of his death, which is known to have happened B. C. 149. How far we are to go back from this date is a question upon which the authorities are not unanimous. According to the consistent chronology of Cicero (Senect. 4), Cato was born B. C. 234, in the year preceding the first consulship of Q. Fabius Maximus, and died at the age of 85, in the consulship of L. Marcius and M. Manilius. Pliny (Plin. Nat. 29.8) agrees with Cicero. Other authors exaggerate the age of Cato. According to Valerius Maximlus (8.7.1) he survived his 86th year; according to Livy (39.40) and Plutarch (Plut. Cat. Ma. 15) he was 90 years old when he died. The exaggerated age, however, is inconsistent within a statement recorded by Plutarch (Cat. Aaj. 1) on the
t--the example of Rome herself. " If Rome were stript of all that she did not justly gain, the Romans might go back to their huts." Cato, offended with these principles, and jealous of the attention paid to this Greek, gave advice which the senate followed--" Let these deputies have an answer, and a polite dismissal as soon as possible." Upon the conquest of Perseus, the leading men of the Achaian union, to the number of nearly 1,000, including the historian Polybius, were brought to Rome, B. C. 167, as hostages for the good behaviour of the Achaians, and, afterwards, without any proof of disaffection, were detained in exile from their country, and distributed among the colonize and municipia of Italy. When their numbers were reduced to about 300, by an exile of 16 years, the intercession of the younger Africanus, the friend of Polybius, prevailed with Cato to vote that they should be permitted to return to their country. The conduct of the old senator--he was now eighty-three---was k
were the condemnation and tears of that father's foes. With greenish-gray eyes and sandy hair, an iron frame, and a stentorian voice, he gave utterance to such bitter invectives as to provoke the pungent Greek epigram recorded by Plutarch. (Cato, 1) *Purro\n, pandake/thn, glauko/mmaton, ou)de\ qano/nta *Po/rkion ei)s a)i/+dhn *Persefo/nh de/xetai. His resistance to luxury continued. In B. C. 181, he urged the adoption of the Lex Orchia for restricting the number of guests at banquets. In B. C. 169 (according to Cicero, Senect. 5, or several years earlier, according to the epitomizer of Livy Epit. xli.) he supported the proposal of the Lex Voconia, the provisions of which were calculated to prevent the accumulation of wealth in the hands of women. In some questions of foreign policy we find him taking the side of the oppressed. The proconsular governors of both Spains compelled the provincial inhabitants to pay their corn-assessments in money at a high arbitrary commutation, and th
l of the Lex Voconia, the provisions of which were calculated to prevent the accumulation of wealth in the hands of women. In some questions of foreign policy we find him taking the side of the oppressed. The proconsular governors of both Spains compelled the provincial inhabitants to pay their corn-assessments in money at a high arbitrary commutation, and then forced the provincial farmers to supply the Romans with corn at a greatly reduced price. When the Spanish deputies came to Rome, B. C. 171, to complain of such unjust exaction, Cato was chosen advocate of his former province, Citerior Spain, and conducted the prosecution with such spirit as to draw down upon himself powerful enmity, although the guilty governors, M. Matienus and P. Furius Philus, escaped condemnation by voluntary exile. (Liv. 43.2.) Again, when the Rhodians besought the senate not to punish the whole island for the unauthorized acts of a few factious individuals, on the charge of general disaffection toward
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