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Ptolemaeus Ii. or Ptolemaeus Philadelphus (*Ptolemai=os) king of EGYPT, surnamed PHILADELPHUS, was the son of Ptolemy I. by his wife Berenice. He was born in the island of Cos, whither his mother had accompanied her husband during the naval campaign of B. C. 309. (Theocr. Idyll. 17.58; et Schol. ad loc. ; Callim. H. ad Del. 165-190; Droysen, Hellenism. vol. i. p. 418.) We have scarcely any information concerning the period of his boyhood or youth, though we learn that he received a careful education ; and Philetas, the elegiac poet of Cos, and Zenodotus the grammarian, are mentioned as his literary preceptors (Suid. s.v. *Filhta=s and *Zhni/dotos). But it is probable that his own promising character and disposition combined with the partiality of his father for Berenice, to induce the aged monarch to set aside the offspring of his former marriage in favour of Philadelphus. In order to carry this project into execution, and secure the succession to this his favourite son, the king at
. After her death he erected a temple to Arsinoe, and caused divine honours to be paid to her memory. (Paus. 1.7. §§ 1, 3; Theocrit. Idyll. 17.130, Schol. ad loc. ; Athen. 14.621.) By this second marriage Ptolemy had no issue : but his first wife had borne him two sons-Ptolemy, who succeeded him on the throne, and Lysimachus; and a daughter, Berenice, whose marriage to Antiochus II., king of Syria, has been already mentioned. Philadelphus died a natural death before the close of the year B. C. 247; having reigned thirtyeight years from his first accession, and thirty-six from the death of his father (Euseb. Arm. p. 114 ; Clinton, F. H. vol. iii. p. 379). He had been always of a feeble and sickly constitution, which prevented him from ever taking the command of his armies in person; and he led the life of a refined voluptuary, combining sensual and dissolute pleasures with the more elevated gratifications of the taste and understanding. (Strab. xvii. p.789 ; Athen. 13.576.) The great
e new monarch (Nov B. C. 285) was celebrated with festivities and processions of the utmost magnificence. (Just. 16.2 ; Athen. v. pp. 196-203; Porphyr. ap. Euseb. Arm. p. 113.) It is probable that the virtual authority of king still remained in the hands of Ptolemy Soter, during the two years that he survived this event ; but no attempt was made to disturb his arrangement of the succession. Ptolemy Cerannus and Meleager quitted Egypt, and Philadelphus found himself at his father's death (B. C. 283) the undisputed master of his wealthy and powerful kingdom. His long reign was marked by few events of a striking character, while his attention was mainly directed to the internal administration of his kingdom, and the patronage of literature and science; his foreign policy was essentially pacific, and the few external wars by which his reign was troubled, were not of a nature to affect deeply the prosperity of his dominions. Unfortunately, our historical information concerning his reign
his former marriage in favour of Philadelphus. In order to carry this project into execution, and secure the succession to this his favourite son, the king at length resolved to abdicate the sovereign power, and establish Philadelphus (at this time 24 years of age) upon the throne during his own lifetime. The young prince appears to have been personally popular with the Alexandrians, who, we are told, welcomed the announcement with the utmost joy, and the accession of the new monarch (Nov B. C. 285) was celebrated with festivities and processions of the utmost magnificence. (Just. 16.2 ; Athen. v. pp. 196-203; Porphyr. ap. Euseb. Arm. p. 113.) It is probable that the virtual authority of king still remained in the hands of Ptolemy Soter, during the two years that he survived this event ; but no attempt was made to disturb his arrangement of the succession. Ptolemy Cerannus and Meleager quitted Egypt, and Philadelphus found himself at his father's death (B. C. 283) the undisputed ma