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tar (Plut. Sertor. 12). In B. C. 80, Sulla sent L. Domitius Ahenobarbus to take the command against Sertorius in Nearer Spain, and Fufidius in Further Spain. Fufidius was defeated by Sertorius with great loss on the banks of the Guadalquivr. Sertorius was now strengthened by the accession of many Romans who had been proscribed by Sulla; and this not only added to his consideration, but brought him many good officers. The dictator Sulla appointed, as governor of Spain for the following year, B. C. 79, his colleague in the consulship, Q. Metellus Pius, the son of Numidicus. Metellus was about fifty years of age, inactive and fond of ease, and no match for a younger soldier, who was never weary and never off his guard. The kind of warfare which Metellus had to carry on was new to his men and to himself. He could not bring the enemy to any decisive battle, and yet the enemy let him have no rest. In a country without roads, which was so well known to Sertorius, he could not move with safe
end him on all occasions. Plutarch's life of Sertorius is written something in the style of a romance; but his story of the fawn, and of the use which Sertorius made of it, contains nothing improbable, if we consider the character of the man and his circumstances. The story of the fawn is also supported by the testimony of Frontinus (Stratag. 1.11.13). His first exploit was the defeat of Cotta, the legate of Luscus, in a sea-fight in or near the Straits of Gibraltar (Plut. Sertor. 12). In B. C. 80, Sulla sent L. Domitius Ahenobarbus to take the command against Sertorius in Nearer Spain, and Fufidius in Further Spain. Fufidius was defeated by Sertorius with great loss on the banks of the Guadalquivr. Sertorius was now strengthened by the accession of many Romans who had been proscribed by Sulla; and this not only added to his consideration, but brought him many good officers. The dictator Sulla appointed, as governor of Spain for the following year, B. C. 79, his colleague in the cons
th their masters' wives, and violated their children. Sertorius was at last roused, and either alone or with the concurrence of Cinna, he fell upon these scoundrels in their camp, and speared four thousand of them. (Plut. Sert. 5, Mar. 44.) In B. C. 83 Sertorius was praetor. Sulla was now returning home after reducing Mithridates to terms, and the party of Sertorius made preparations to oppose him. But their means and measures were ineffectual against so wily an enemy. The consul Norbanus washould undertake the administration of the province of Further Spain. Julius Exsuperantius (100.8) is the sole authority for this fact, though he does not state the whole affair correctly. Appian (App. BC 1.86, 108) makes Sertorius go to Spain in B. C. 83, before the consulship of Carbo and the younger Marius. With few men and little money, Sertorius made his way through Gaul, and bought a free passage over the Pyrenees from the barbarians (Plut. Sertor. 6). In Spain he set about forming an arm
44.) In B. C. 83 Sertorius was praetor. Sulla was now returning home after reducing Mithridates to terms, and the party of Sertorius made preparations to oppose him. But their means and measures were ineffectual against so wily an enemy. The consul Norbanus was defeated; and the army of the other consul, L. Scipio, being gained over by Sulla, though Q. Sertorius had warned Scipio of the danger of a negotiation with Sulla, he withdrew into Etruria. His remonstrances also had no effect in B. C. 82 with the consuls Carbo and the younger Marius, and in order to get rid of him, they suggested that he should undertake the administration of the province of Further Spain. Julius Exsuperantius (100.8) is the sole authority for this fact, though he does not state the whole affair correctly. Appian (App. BC 1.86, 108) makes Sertorius go to Spain in B. C. 83, before the consulship of Carbo and the younger Marius. With few men and little money, Sertorius made his way through Gaul, and bought
ertility of resources, qualified him for the life of adventure which it was his lot to have. The ancient writers have amused themselves with comparing him with other remarkable men. Plutarch has instituted a parallel between Sertorius and Eumenes, which is not inappropriate. The comparison with Hannibal, Philippus, and Antigonus, is mainly a classification of one-eyed men; for Sertorius also had lost an eye. His military career commenced in Gaul. He was in the bloody battle on the Rhone (B. C. 105), in which the proconsul, Q. Servilius Caepio, was defeated by the Germans; and though wounded, Sertorius saved his life by swimming across the river in his armour. He was with Marius, B. C. 102, at Aix (Aquae Sextiae), and before the battle he entered the camp of the Teutones in disguise as a spy, for which hazardous undertaking his intrepid character and some knowledge of the Gallic language well qualified him. He served as tribunus militum in Spain under T. Didius (B. C. 97). During his
lus. The two generals advanced against Calahorra on the Ebro, but here they were attacked by Sertorius, and sustained great loss. Metellus spent the winter in Nearer Spain, and Pompeius was compelled, by want of supplies, to spend the winter in Gallia, in the province of M. Fonteius (Cic. pro Font. 3). Sertorius was actively employed in visiting the south-east coast of Spain and inspecting his fleet, which was employed in intercepting any supplies to the enemy. The events of the campaigns B. C. 73 and 72 are merely hinted at by the ancient authorities. Sertorius lost many towns; but there was no decisive battle. He began to abate his activity, to indulge in wine and women, and to become cruel and suspicious. (Appian, 1.113). There was, indeed, good reason for his suspicions; but as to the rest, Appian's testimony is doubtful. He had taken Spaniards for his guard, because lie distrusted his own countrymen. The Spaniards of higher rank were dissatisfied with not having the same distinc
behaviour under the assumed guise of drunkenness. Sertorius changed his posture on the couch by throwing himself on his back and pretending not to listen to them. But on Perperna taking a cup of wine, and, in the midst of the draught, throwing it away, which was the signal agreed on, Manius Antonius struck him with his sword. Sertorius attempted to rise, but Antonius threw himself upon him, and held his hands while the rest of the conspirators despatched him. Thus ended the war of Sertorius B. C. 72. The termination brought no glory to Metellus and Pompeius, for the hands of assassins, and not their skill or courage, concluded the contest. The loss of all complete and authentic materials for the war of Sertorius is ill supplied by the life in Plutarch. Drumann (Pompeii) has collected and arranged the scattered fragments of the history, and he has done it with care and ability. A certain amount of conjecture or inference is, however, necessary to fill up even the scantiest outline of th
instituted a parallel between Sertorius and Eumenes, which is not inappropriate. The comparison with Hannibal, Philippus, and Antigonus, is mainly a classification of one-eyed men; for Sertorius also had lost an eye. His military career commenced in Gaul. He was in the bloody battle on the Rhone (B. C. 105), in which the proconsul, Q. Servilius Caepio, was defeated by the Germans; and though wounded, Sertorius saved his life by swimming across the river in his armour. He was with Marius, B. C. 102, at Aix (Aquae Sextiae), and before the battle he entered the camp of the Teutones in disguise as a spy, for which hazardous undertaking his intrepid character and some knowledge of the Gallic language well qualified him. He served as tribunus militum in Spain under T. Didius (B. C. 97). During his residence in winter quarters at Castulo, which was probably on the Guadalquivr, he was expelled by the inhabitants on account of the oppressive conduct of the Roman garrison; but as the Spaniard
e winter camp of Sertorius was also not far from the Iberus at Aelia Castra. Appian says that both Metellus and Pompeius wintered near the Pyrenees, and Sertorius and Perperna in Lusitania. (Compare Drumann, Pompeius, p. 364.) In the spring of B. C. 75 Perperna was sent by Sertorius, with a large force, to the mouth of the Iberus, to watch Pompeius. In Baetica, or Further Spain, L. Hirtuleius had to observe the movements of Metellus. Sertorius ascended the Ebro, and laid waste the country as fto the senate, in urgent terms, for men and supplies. He said, that if they did not come, lie and his army must leave Spain, and Sertorius would come after them. (Frag. Hist. Sallust. lib. iii.) The letter reached Rome before the end of the year B. C. 75, but nothing was done upon it until the following year. The last battle had procured Metellus the title of Imperator, and he was as proud of it as any silly child would have been. He was received in Nearer Spain with flattering entertainments,
leave Spain, and Sertorius would come after them. (Frag. Hist. Sallust. lib. iii.) The letter reached Rome before the end of the year B. C. 75, but nothing was done upon it until the following year. The last battle had procured Metellus the title of Imperator, and he was as proud of it as any silly child would have been. He was received in Nearer Spain with flattering entertainments, and all the pomp of rejoicings after victory. Pompeius was better employed in looking after his troops. In B. C. 74 he received from Italy money and two legions, for which he was indebted as much to the jealousy of his enemies at Rome as to his friends. The consul L. Lucullus was afraid that if Pompeius returned from Spain, he would get the command in the war against Mithridates, king of Pontus. Mithridates now sent proposals to Sertorius to form an alliance, and they were accepted with some modifications. The terms are stated by Plutarch (Sertor. 24) : Metellus had already offered a great reward for the
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