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nished the writer by the War Department (see Appendix, Chapter XXXI.), it is placed at 27,113. General Buell, in his letter of August 31, 1865, published in the New York World, September 5, 1865, estimates the reinforcements sent by him to Grant at 10,000 men, and Grant's force at from 30,000 to 35,000. Badeau says: On the last day of the fight Grant had 27,000 men, whom he could have put into battle; some few regiments of these were not engaged. Other reenforcements arrived on the 16th, after the surrender, swelling his number still further. In this estimate no account is taken of the cooperating naval forces, nor of troops landed and supporting, but not engaged. There was no doubt in the mind of any Southerner engaged in the defense that the Federal force was much greater than this. The conviction of all the Confederate leaders that they fought 50,000 men was probably exaggerated by the circumstances of the case; but General Badeau's figures will prove, on a rigid in
he combats at Donelson, Forrest, with his cavalry, showed his usual vigor and dash, although he had an unusually difficult part to perform with his troopers in the dense and tangled woods. The artillery could not have done better. Porter, Graves, and Maney, in particular, displayed in splendid manner their soldierly qualities; and the men were worthy of their officers. Their losses were heavy, and Captain Porter was himself wounded. As General Grant was returning, on the morning of the 15th, from his conference with the wounded commodore, he gave little heed to the heavy firing on his right, which, like Lew Wallace, he mistook for an attack by McClernand. As he rode leisurely to camp, between nine and ten o'clock, he met an aide galloping furiously from the right to tell him of McClernand's straits. Grant, being near C. F. Smith, found him, and bade him hold himself in readiness to attack the Confederate right. Grant then rode to his right wing, where all was confusion and
endured isolation, hunger, pain, and exhaustion, so that death brought a blessed relief. These are some of the horrors of war; and yet it is to the sentimental philanthropists that the occasions of war are oftenest due. During the evening of the 13th Commodore Foote's flotilla arrived, with the reinforcements, 10,000 strong or more. These were assigned to General Lew Wallace, who had also brought over the troops from Fort Henry. Part of them were landed before daylight; and Friday, the 14th, was spent in putting them in position on the centre, between Smith and McClernand. These arrangements occupied the whole day. The snow lay more than two inches deep, and the north wind still blew with chilly breath. The torpor of cold and fatigue seemed to cling to both antagonists. Nevertheless, though no assault was made, a rambling and ineffective fire was kept up. But, though the land-forces were thus paralyzed by the rigor of the season, Donelson was not permitted to enjoy a day of
nce of the troops from this point to Fort Donelson. I will reach there before day, leaving a small guard here. On the 13th, at 9.50 A. M., Floyd telegraphed from Fort Donelson: The enemy's gunboats are advancing. They are in force around l prelude to days and nights of deadly struggle. the battle of the trenches, as Pillow styles it, began at dawn on the 13th. Floyd arrived before daylight with the troops from Cumberland City; but, before they had taken position, the fighting had begun. Thursday morning, the 13th, was clear and mild; and, at earliest dawn, the Federal skirmishers came down from the hills, where they had slept, into the valley between the lines, and commenced firing; while their artillery opened from evee gunboats were neither invulnerable nor invincible, and congratulations and rejoicings went through the camps. On the 13th Floyd and Pillow each sent several dispatches to General Johnston. Pillow's breathed a very confident spirit: I have the
of his verbal orders is sustained by the correspondence, telegraphic and by letter, between General Johnston and his subordinates on the Cumberland. These matters will be made clearer by reference to the correspondence here following. On the 12th, Pillow, being still in command, telegraphed: If I can retain my present force, I can hold my position.... Let me retain Buckner for the present. If now withdrawn, will invite an attack. Enemy cannot pass this place without exposing himselce at 10,000 men. They were to land near Donelson, and cooperate with the army that marched across the country from Henry. On the same day Grant sent forward his vanguard, under McClernand, three or four miles, and, early on the morning of the 12th, moved with his main column. His force was 15,000 strong, with eight light batteries; and he left a garrison of 2,500 men at Henry. He marched unincumbered with tents or baggage, with but few wagons, and no rations save those in the haversacks.
February 16th, 1862 AD (search for this): chapter 32
y generous or elevated feeling may be paid for by a nation at heavy cost. Appendix A. General Buckner to General Grant. headquarters, Fort Donelson, February 16, 1862. sir: In consideration of all the circumstances governing the present situation of affairs at this station, I propose to the commanding officer of the FedGeneral U. S. Grant, commanding United States forces near Fort Donelson. General Grant to General Buckner. Headquarters, army in the field, Fort Donelson, February 16, 1862. sir: Yours of this date, proposing armistice and appointment of commissioners to settle terms of capitulation, is just received. No terms except uncondi, U. S. Grant, Brigadier-General commanding. General S. B. Buckner, Confederate Army. General Buckner to General Grant. headquarters, Dover, Tennessee, February 16, 1862. sir: The distribution of the forces under my command, incident to an unexpected change of commanders, and the overwhelming force under your command, comp
lle. He intended to leave Pillow to defend the fort. But Pillow thought if the whole of Floyd's army could not defend Donelson, half of it could not, and that such a course must involve his capture. So, when Buckner arrived, on the night of the 11th, to carry off his division, Pillow refused to allow it, and appealed to General Johnston by telegraph. He also went by steamer to Floyd at Cumberland, leaving Buckner temporarily in command, and persuaded Floyd to concentrate all his troops at Donforcements. But Grant and Foote, learning that the Confederates were reinforcing Donelson, hurried their preparations for attack; and, as soon as the first reinforcements arrived, began their expedition against Donelson. Foote started on the 11th, with his fleet, and transports carrying six regiments of reinforcements. Near Paducah they were met by eight more transports loaded with troops, which accompanied them to Donelson. Federal writers place this force at 10,000 men. They were to la
for General Johnston to feel that he had fallen short of the requirements of the occasion. Pillow telegraphed him on the 10th, the day after his arrival: My position undisturbed by enemy. Am pushing my work day and night. Will make my batteal Buckner's command, as they are suffering very much this cold weather. Writing to General Johnston the same day, the 10th, Colonel Gilmer says : The attack expected here is a combined one-gunboats by water, and a land-force in their rear. attalion, and three or four small companies-altogether 800 or 1,000 strong. He had arrived with his regiment only on the 10th. Scott's Louisiana Cavalry Regiment was in observation on the right bank of the Cumberland. The aggregate of this foro Fort Henry at all hazards. Impress slaves, if necessary, to strengthen your position as rapidly as possible. On the 10th he again promised large reinforcements. Grant was not able to make good his promise. His biographer attributes his del
neral Johnston said what he could by way of encouragement. He telegraphed to Pillow: Your report of the effect of shots at Fort Henry should encourage the troops, and insure our success. If, at long range, we could do so much damage, with the necessary short range on the Cumberland, we should destroy their boats. Gilmer, after his escape from Henry, stopped at Donelson; and, with General Johnston's authority, engaged actively in preparations for its defense. Pillow arrived on the 9th, and pressed forward the works. Additional lines of infantry cover were constructed, to embrace the town of Dover; and two heavy guns were mounted — the only guns there effective against the armor of the gunboats. All this was accomplished by the night of the 12th. Pillow says that, at the time of his arrival- Deep gloom was hanging over the command, and the troops were greatly depressed and demoralized by the circumstances attending the fall of Fort Henry, and the manner of retiri
a, that the effective force of the Confederates during the siege of Donelson was from 14,500 to 15,000. Let us now turn to the Federal army at Henry. Grant, elated by success, telegraphed Halleck: I shall take and destroy Fort Donelson on the 8th, and return to Fort Henry. Badeau says, This was the first mention of Fort Donelson, whether in conversation or dispatches, between the two commanders. This statement is erroneous. Halleck telegraphed Buell, January 31st: I have ordered an advand Dover, etc. Buell, however, had recommended the same movement to Halleck, as early as January 3d, and had already voluntarily started thirteen regiments to aid Grant in it. Halleck was also sending reinforcements, and he replied to Grant on the 8th: Some of the gunboats from Fort Holt will be sent up. Reinforcements will reach you daily. Hold on to Fort Henry at all hazards. Impress slaves, if necessary, to strengthen your position as rapidly as possible. On the 10th he again prom
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