Gettysburg is a small town near the Pennsylvania and Maryland boundary line, ten miles east of the south range of mountains-the eastern wall of the Cumberland Valley --and through whose passes Lee's army debouched.
The intervening section is described as full of long ridges running north and south, as the mountains do. On Lee's route from Cashtown to Gettysburg one of these ridges is crossed at right angles one and a half mile west of Gettysburg, and a little farther on another; Willoughby Run flows between them, and here the combat of July 1st opened.
Closer to the town and about half a mile west of — it is the now famous Seminary Ridge, so called from a Lutheran theological seminary on it, upon which were located the battle lines of portions of two of Lee's corps on the 2d and 3d of July.
Directly south of Gettysburg is the beginning of another series of heights, hills, and depressions which, running in a southerly direction for three miles, terminate in a lofty, wooded