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Burlington (Vermont, United States) (search for this): chapter 13
esponsibility on his own broad shoulders, and some of it must be put there. First, the discretion allowed, which separated him from his cavalry; second, the omission of positive orders to Ewell to advance on the evening of the 1st, General Meade told General Ewell, after the war, had he occu-pied Culp's Hill at 4 P. M., July 1st, it would have produced the with-drawal of the Federal troops by the Baltimore pike, Taneytown, and Emmittsburg roads. See letter to Colonel G. G. Benedict, Burlington, Vt., March 16, 1876. and the failure to replace an officer who opposed his plans with one who would have entered into them heartily, and readily cooperated with him to whip the enemy in detail. In justice to Stuart, it may be said that he did not foresee that a marching, intervening, hostile army would keep him away from Lee so long, or that he would be required before he could get to the Susquehanna, and it is fair to Ewell to recall his instructions about not bringing on a general batt
Fortress Monroe (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 13
w not of now. We must all bear our labors and hardships manfully. Our noble men are cheerful and confident. I constantly remember you in my thoughts and prayers. On July 12th, in camp near Hagerstown, Lee heard his son had been carried to Fort Monroe, and wrote: The consequences of war are horrid enough at best surrounded by all the amelioration of civilization and Christianity. I am very sorry for the injuries done the family at Hickory Hill, and particularly that our dear old Uncle Willo that when he eventually took up the line of the Rappahannock, Lee occupied a parallel line on the Rapidan. From his tent in Culpeper he wrote Mrs. Lee on August 2d: I have heard of some doctor having reached Richmond who had seen our son at Fort Monroe. He said that his wound was improving, and that he himself was well and walking about on crutches. The exchange of prisoners that had been going on has for some cause been suspended, owing to some crotchet or other, but I hope will soon be
Bunker Hill (West Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 13
e to draw through the mud. The Union commander made no effort to follow the Army of Northern Virginia across the river, except with Gregg's cavalry, which was attacked by two of Stuart's brigades and driven back with loss. Lee proceeded to Bunker Hill and its vicinity, intending to cross the Shenandoah and move into Loudoun County, Va.; but that river was past fording, and when it subsided, Meade, who had crossed the Potomac east of the Blue Ridge, seized the passes Lee designed to use and reaching Culpeper Court House July 24th. Afterward, with a view of placing his force in a position to move readily to oppose the enemy, should he proceed south, and to better protect Richmond, he made the Rapidan his defensive line. While at Bunker Hill he wrote Mrs. Lee on July 15th: The army has returned to Virginia. Its return is rather sooner than I had originally contemplated, but, having accomplished much of what I proposed on leaving the Rappahannock-namely, relieving the Valley of th
Appomattox (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 13
after carefully considered plans have matured — a qualification so conspicuous in the careers of Napoleon and Stonewall Jackson. This has been a sad day to us, said Lee, but we can not always expect to win victories. It was a sad day for the South, for at that time it was within a stone's throw of peace. Fate was against Lee; the high-water mark of Southern independence had been reached, and from that hour it began to ebb from the mountains of Pennsylvania until lost in the hills of Appomattox. It is all my fault, Lee exclaimed, and proceeded in person to rally and reform his shattered troops. There was much less noise, fuss, or confusion of orders than at any ordinary field day; the men were brought up in detachments, quietly and coolly, said an English colonel who rode by his side. With that wonderful magnanimity which Lee so fully possessed he took all the responsibility on his own broad shoulders, and some of it must be put there. First, the discretion allowed, which
Rock Creek, Menard County, Illinois (Illinois, United States) (search for this): chapter 13
and then southeast, to an elevation called Culp's Hill. On Culp's Hill and around this curve, and then south to Round Top for three miles, was the Union battle line. Its shape has been not inaptly compared to a fish hook, with long side and curve. The formation was convex, allowing the Union commander to operate tactically on interior lines, so that he could rapidly re-enforce along his rear the threatened points. The ground in rear of this splendid battle line fell in gradual slope to Rock Creek, affording capital shelter for reserves and trains. Five hundred yards west of Little Round Top, and one hundred feet lower, is Devil's Den, a bold, rocky height, steep on its eastern face, but prolonged as a ridge to the west. It lies between two streams in the angle where they meet. The northern extremity is covered with huge bowlders and rocks, forming crevices and holes, the largest of which gives the name to the ridge. Gettysburg is the hub of the wheel, and the Baltimore, York
Gades (Spain) (search for this): chapter 13
Chapter 12: Gettysburg. The fifth commander of the Army of the Potomac was Major-General George Gordon Meade, then in command of the Fifth Corps. This officer was born in Cadiz, Spain, in December, 1815, and was consequently forty-six years old. He graduated at West Point in 1835, and was assigned to the artillery arm of the service. A year afterward he resigned from the army, but after six years was reappointed second lieutenant of the Topographical Engineers, and was in Mexico on General Patterson's staff. Meade's father served as a private soldier in the Pennsylvania troops to suppress the Whisky Insurrection in western Pennsylvania, and therefore was under General Lee's father, who commanded the forces raised for that purpose. He was afterward a merchant, a shipowner, and a navy agent in Cadiz, but shortly after his son's birth returned to the United States. In justice to this officer, it may be said that he protested against being placed in command of an army that ha
Falling Waters (West Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 13
e movement. Lee reached Hagerstown, Md., on the 6th, the same day his trains arrived at Williamsport, a few miles distant. On account of the swollen condition of the Potomac from recent rains, and the destruction of the pontoon bridge at Falling Waters, a short distance below, by a roving detachment sent by French at Harper's Ferry, Lee could not cross his impedimenta or his army over the river, but sent the wounded and prisoners over in boats. Calm and quiet as usual, he had a line of defense skillfully traced to cover the river from Williamsport to Falling Waters, and confidently awaited the subsidence of the angry flood and the approach of his opponent. His cavalry had guarded his flanks in the retreat and had saved his trains at Williamsport from an attack of the Union cavalry before his army reached there, and had a creditable affair at Hagerstown. Six days after his arrival, Meade, marching from Gettysburg by a different route from that pursued by Lee, began to deploy
Fredericksburg, Va. (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 13
nd they voted-as they should have done, being in superior position, with interior lines — to wait, as Lee had done at Fredericksburg, for another attack, and found him more accommodating than Burnside. General Lee had a difficult task: the lines lumn sprang to the attack. It was a magnificent and thrilling spectacle. It is well war is so terrible, said Lee at Fredericksburg; we should grow too fond of it. No such inspiring sight was ever witnessed in this country. Two long lines of angryr, Scales, and Jenkins. Meade showed no disposition to assume the offensive after Pickett's repulse. Like Lee at Fredericksburg, he did not want to lose the advantages of position, and was not certain the battle was over. The relative numbers and circumspect at Gettysburg, for he did not forget the bullet holes through his hat when he attacked on his left at Fredericksburg, or the knowledge gained of the unfavorable conditions always surrounding an attacking force. He was still waiting f
Hastings (Michigan, United States) (search for this): chapter 13
larger the numbers of the Unionists would grow. Lee could not move around now and manoeuvre, or scatter his legions to gather supplies as he had done, because his opponent was uncomfortably near. He could not march en masse, with a host subsisting by pillage, and to concentrate was to starve. There was no alternativehe must fight. He was obliged to adopt the tactics of William the Conqueror when he invaded England, who, similarly situated, assumed the offensive and defeated Harold at Hastings. Napoleon waited at Waterloo for the ground to dry and lost hours, during which he might have defeated Wellington before the arrival of re-enforcements. Why should Lee lose the advantages of his more rapid concentration? His superb equipoise was not threatened by subdued excitement. His unerring sagacity told him he would catch General Meade partially in position, but he was disturbed because one of his principal officers had not the faith and confidence necessary to win success. Lo
Blue Sulphur Springs (West Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 13
or the bones beneath the ruins of Pompeii, could not be more silent than the refusal of these heroes to shout to Robert E. Lee's successor, Vive le roi! The Angel of Peace would have appeared in the hour General Lee bid farewell to the Army of Northern Virginia and mounted Traveler to ride away, for the rapid termination of the war would have simplified the duties of the younger and abler man. Traveler, the most distinguished of the general's war horses, was born near the Blue Sulphur Springs, in West Virginia, and was purchased by General Lee from Major Thomas L. Broun, who bought him from Captain James W. Johnston, the son of the gentleman who reared him. General Lee saw him first in West Virginia and afterward in South Carolina, and was greatly pleased with his appearance. As soon as Major Broun ascertained that fact the horse was offered the general as a gift, but he declined, and Major Broun then sold him. He was four years old in the spring of 1861, and therefore only eight
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