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admirable isometrical drawing of the battlefield of Gettysburg, whose accuracy is attested by General Meade and his fellow-commanders on that occasion. It is wonderfully minute in its, details, showing the movements, even of regiments, during the conflict, and giving a perfect impression of the event. the writer visited the battle-ground at Gettysburg a week after the conflict, and again in the autumn of 1866, each time with traveling companions already mentioned in these pages. On the First occasion we encountered many difficulties after leaving Philadelphia, First in trying unsuccessfully to reach Gettysburg by way of Harrisburg, and then by detention in Baltimore, the Northern Central railway being in the exclusive service of the Government for some days after the battle. Having friends at court, we gained, through them, permission to take passage in a Government train, which we did at ten o'clock on a pleasant morning, in company with Mr. Barclay, the philanthropist spoken
the whole corps before morning. Hancock, on his way back, met his own corps under Gibbons, which Meade had sent forward, and posted it a mile and a half in the rear of Cemetery Hill. When he reached Headquarters, at nine Meade's Headquarters. in the evening, he found Meade determined to make a stand at Gettysburg. He had given orders for the whole army to concentrate there, and was about leaving for the front. Both officers rode rapidly forward, and at one o'clock on the morning of the 2d, July, 1863. Meade made his Headquarters at the house of Mrs. Lydia Leister, on the Taneytown road, a short distance in the rear of Cemetery Hill. Only the corps of Sykes and Sedgwick were then absent. the former, by a forced night march, arrived early in the morning, and the latter at two o'clock in the afternoon. Sykes was not far from Hanover, twenty-three miles distant, when ordered to advance, and Sedgwick was at Manchester, more than thirty miles distant. Lee, too, had been bri
July. It was chiefly an artillery duel by the horse batteries of each. The Confederates were worsted, when Kilpatrick, according to an order, hastened to two Taverns, on the Baltimore turnpike, in the rear of Meade's Army. On the morning of the 3d, these troopers were on and near the Emmettsburg road, on the right and rear of the Confederates, and at eleven o'clock, made a dash for the capture of their train. A heavy force of infantry was immediately sent to co-operate with some of Stuart'sying with them about four thousand prisoners. A severe rain-storm had commenced at the close of the day, and the flight was distressing to all who participated in it. when it was made evident by the reports of cavalry scouts, on the night of the 3d, July. that Lee was about to retreat, General Meade was urged by some of his officers to make an immediate advance on the Confederate Army. Great responsibility makes men conservative and cautious. It was only about twenty days since the command
whole force in pursuit, in a flank movement, by way of Emmettsburg and Middletown, and the lower passes of the South Mountain range, through which he hoped to strike his antagonist's flank. He ordered General French at Frederick to send a force to Turner's Gap, see page 471, volume II. and with his main body to re-occupy Harper's Ferry. Leaving a brigade each of cavalry and infantry to harrass and delay the Confederate rear, he left Gettysburg, with a greater portion of the Army, on the 6th, and crossed the mountains into the Antietam Valley. But he moved so cautiously and tardily that when, on the 12th, July, 1868. he overtook Lee, the latter was strongly intrenched on a Ridge covering the Potomac from Williamsport to falling waters, waiting for the flood in the river, caused by the recent rains, to subside, and allow him to cross into Virginia. Unfortunately for Lee, General French had anticipated Meade's order, re-occupied Harper's Ferry, and sent a cavalry force to destro
presentatives of the Church, State, and Trade. This association was formed in Manchester in April, 1864, and the announcement of its organization, together with a list of its officers and members, was published in the Manchester Guardian on the 9th of that month. Nearly nine hundred names appeared in the list, representing the highest and most influential classes in England — members of the House of Lords, and of the House of Commons, not a few; baronets, clergymen, lawyers, magistrates, and Kelly's fords, with two of his divisions under Buford and Gregg, supported by two infantry divisions (Russell's, of the Sixth, and Ames's, of the Eleventh Corps), and push on toward Stuart's camp by converging roads. Accordingly, at dawn on the 9th, June. Buford crossed at Beverly Ford, and immediately encountered a brigade of Confederate cavalry under the active General Sam. Jones. A sharp engagement ensued, when the Eighth New York, under Colonel B. F. Davis, was routed, and its commande
quehanna, with Headquarters at Harrisburg; and the western, under General Brooks, the Department of the Monongahela, with Headquarters at Pittsburg. The Middle Department was under the command of General Schenck, Headquarters at Baltimore. On the 12th, Governor Curtin, of that State, issued a call for the entire militia of the commonwealth to turn out to defend its soil, but it was feebly responded to; and on the 15th, the President called upon the States nearest the capital for an aggregate ofch of cavalry and infantry to harrass and delay the Confederate rear, he left Gettysburg, with a greater portion of the Army, on the 6th, and crossed the mountains into the Antietam Valley. But he moved so cautiously and tardily that when, on the 12th, July, 1868. he overtook Lee, the latter was strongly intrenched on a Ridge covering the Potomac from Williamsport to falling waters, waiting for the flood in the river, caused by the recent rains, to subside, and allow him to cross into Virginia
I., volume II. and was watching and guarding the fords of the Rappahannock, he projected his left wing, under Ewell, through the Blue Ridge at Chester's Gap, and by way of Front Royal it crossed the Shenandoah River, and burst into the valley at Strasburg like an avalanche. That energetic leader moved with the divisions of Early and Edward Johnston rapidly down the Valley pike, and arrived before Winchester, where General Milroy was in command of about ten thousand men, on the evening of the 13th, June, 1863. having marched from Culpepper, a distance of seventy miles, in three days. At the same time Imboden, with his cavalry, was operating in the vicinity of Romney, to prevent Milroy from being re-enforced from the line of the Baltimore and Ohio railway. This was a bold movement on the part of Lee, for it made the actual line of his army, from Hill at Fredericksburg to Ewell at Winchester, full one hundred miles in length. Although Milroy, since the first of the month, had felt a
d have justified him in retreating at once. But Milroy, brave even to rashness, resolved to fight before flying. He called in his outposts. Colonel McReynold's, with a brigade stationed at Berryville to watch the passes of the Blue Ridge and the fords of the Shenandoah, retreated before Rodes, and very soon Milroy had his forces, not more than seven thousand effectives, well in hand. While awaiting an attack, his foe was accumulating force on his front and flank, and on the evening of the 14th, after some skirmishing, the Confederates substantially invested the city and garrison. At one o'clock the next morning June 15. Milroy, in compliance with the decision of a council of officers, resolved to retreat. He spiked his cannon, drowned his powder, and was about to fly, when the Confederates fell upon him. Then began an unequal struggle, and an equal race, toward the Potomac. The fugitives were swifter-footed than their pursuers, and might all have escaped, had not Johnston's div
vania. The eastern, under General Couch, was called the Department of the Susquehanna, with Headquarters at Harrisburg; and the western, under General Brooks, the Department of the Monongahela, with Headquarters at Pittsburg. The Middle Department was under the command of General Schenck, Headquarters at Baltimore. On the 12th, Governor Curtin, of that State, issued a call for the entire militia of the commonwealth to turn out to defend its soil, but it was feebly responded to; and on the 15th, the President called upon the States nearest the capital for an aggregate of one hundred thousand militia. Maryland was called upon for 10,000 men; Pennsylvania, 50,000; Ohio, 30,000; and West Virginia, 10,000. This, too, was tardily and stingily answered, while uniformed and disciplined regiments of the city of New York so promptly marched toward the field of danger that the Secretary of War publicly thanked the Governor of that State for the exhibition of patriotism. Despondency had pr
was waning, and that the expectation of the Confederates, of a general cry for peace in the Free-labor States, was about to be realized. Finally, when the Confederates were streaming across the Potomac, the number of troops that responded to the call was about fifty thousand, one-half of whom were Pennsylvanians, and fifteen thousand were New Yorkers. The Secretary of War and Governor Curtin called upon Governor Parker, of New Jersey, for troops, and he responded by issuing a call on the 16th. On the same day, General Sanford, of New York City, issued an order for the regiments of the First Division of that State to proceed forthwith to Harrisburg, to assist in repelling the invasion of Pennsylvania. In addition to these, about 1,800 volunteers from various parts of the State were organized and equipped, and sent to Harrisburg. On the 20th of June, about 50,000 men had Responded to the President's call. New York had furnished 15,000; Pennsylvania, 25,000; New Jersey, 3,000; De
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