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regate of 595, must have numbered at least 500 for duty according to the ratio in the other artillery, and that ought to be added to the present for duty at the battle. Lockwood's Maryland brigade joined the Twelfth corps on the morning of the 2d of July, and Stannard's Vermont brigade was added to the First corps on the same morning: of this fact I am positively assured by the Comte de Paris in a letter to me, and Bates also states it. But the fact is very apparent that they were not included otomac, there were, on the 30th of June, 5,286 officers and 71,922 enlisted men, making a total of 77,208 Present for duty equipped --that is, ready to go into a fight; and when Lockwood's and Stannard's brigades were added on the morning of the 2d July, there were 82,208 officers and men in the infantry available for duty in the line of battle. This should satisfy him that his other estimates, founded on testimony similar to that adduced on this point, in regard to the force available to oppo
June 20th showed 5,643 for duty, including five chaplains, and my return for July 10th at Hagerstown showed 4,144, giving a loss of 1,449, of which 1,181 was in bats in battle. My aggregate present on the 20th of June was 6,476, and on the 10th of July it was 4,791, being a loss of 1,685, from which the loss in battle being dedst return received, May 31st, 1863. Opposite the artillery in the return for July 10th is this note: Brigade of regular batteries, aggregate 595, omitted in last rerom which are to be deducted the losses in action, &c.; but as the return for July 10th showed 11,842 for duty in that arm at that date, it must have numbered consid and equipped in the cavalry is. not given, but it is given in the return for July 10th, and then amounted to 11,045. It can therefore be safely assumed to have beeose of the fight on the 1st, are fallacious. By reference to the return of July the 10th, he will find that the Eleventh corps had still 6,895 officers and men for
nable, as will be seen when we come to notice that in the Federal cavalry. Jenkins' brigade, which was not embraced in the returns of May 31st, was about 1,600 strong before it crossed the Potomac, and White's battalion, which belonged to Jones' brigade, did not exceed 200. 6,000, therefore, will cover all the cavalry we had available for the battle. The artillery numbered 4,702 on the 31st of May, and some of it was very evidently left in Virginia with Corse's brigade, as the return for July 20th shows more present for duty in the artillery at that date than on the 31st of May. Some therefore must have rejoined the army by the former date, and very probably some that had been left with Jenkins' brigade near Suffolk had come back. We had 252 pieces with the infantry, as shown by a statement furnished me by General Pendleton, and allowing 15 men to a piece, which would be a superabundance, would give 3,780 men. Add 220 for the officers, giving nearly one to a piece, and we have 4,0
ngth by taking my regiments as the average for the whole army is not warranted by the facts of the case. The return for May 20th, as given by Colonel Taylor, shows present for duty in the entire army at that date, in the infantry, 55,261 officers anof my smallest regiments were left behind in the Valley, and taking their joint strength (773 present for duty) on the 20th of May, there would be left 5,648, giving an average of 353 for the sixteen which were present on the 20th of May and also at20th of May and also at Gettysburg. Multiply 353 by 169, and it gives 59,657, an excess of 4,396 above the number actually present; and by 167 and it gives 58,951, an excess of 3,690 above the number actually present. The return of May 31st, as now correctly given, show number actually present. One of my regiments, the Thirty-first Virginia, was absent and not embraced in the returns of May 20th and 31st, but had returned on the 3d of June, and was embraced in the returns of June the 10th and 20th; so I had only s
uty might be made available for a fight, whereas in the Confederate army the teamsters, whose presence with their teams was always necessary, were no more available in a fight than the mules they drove. The next errors to be noticed are found in the following passage: Through the operations of the draft the effective strength of each regiment had been increased after Chancellorsville. The regiments had received some recruits between the 15th and the 31st of May; some more came between the 10th and 1st of June. Von Borcke says that the regiments of cavalry were largely increased in that way, but I am not satisfied by such vague statements, and in order to prove the fact I propose to calculate the average strength of the regiments from the known strength of several corps, divisions or brigades a few days before the battle, as stated by reliable authorities, and mostly by official reports. The assumption that our army was increased in strength after Chancellorsville through the op
f May. Some therefore must have rejoined the army by the former date, and very probably some that had been left with Jenkins' brigade near Suffolk had come back. We had 252 pieces with the infantry, as shown by a statement furnished me by General Pendleton, and allowing 15 men to a piece, which would be a superabundance, would give 3,780 men. Add 220 for the officers, giving nearly one to a piece, and we have 4,000, which certainly covered the artillery force with the infantry. There were 16ment of Colonel Taylor that General Lee witnessed the flight of the Federals through Gettysburg and up the hills beyond; of General Heth, that he applied for and obtained permission from General Lee to attack while Rodes was engaged; and of General Pendleton, that General Lee arrived on the field about two P. M., and gave instructions for posting some artillery so as to enfilade the enemy's line before it began to fall back, settles the question of his presence beyond all dispute. Ewell is the
to count the officers present for duty on the 31st of May, shows that the total of officers and men present for duty at that date was 74,451, of which 6,099 were officers and 68,352 enlisted men. The officers include those of all grades, and among them were 935 chaplains, quartermasters, commissaries, surgeons, assistant surgeons, and ordnance and signal officers, who did not belong to the fighting department. As one brigade of five regiments that was counted in the returns of May 31st and three regiments of my division were left in Virginia, to replace which was another brigade of four regiments, two regiments that had been with Imboden, and perhaps two other regiments in Davis' newly formed brigade, it May be assumed that the number of men thus added was about the number in the brigade and regiments that were left behind — that is, 74,451 officers and men for duty may be assumed as the basis of the calculations to be made to arrive proximately at the strength of our army when it r
June, 1863 AD (search for this): chapter 1.2
as not quite 600,000 men put in the Confederate army in any way, which would give less than 1,000 each that the Confederate regiments received from the beginning to the close of the war. Of course it follows, as a necessary consequence, that in June, 1863, the Federal regiments were greatly larger than the Confederate regiments were at that time, unless we had rendered hors de combat a great many more of them than they had of us. Besides the troops put into the field before the passage of the Federal conscript act, it appears from the Provost-Marshal General's report (page 53), that 13,971 militia were furnished by New York, and 32,104 by Pennsylvania in June, 1863, upon a call by the President for troops to meet the emergency created by the rebel invasion, which culminated in the battle of Gettysburg. These militia men, who were admirably armed, equipped and clothed, were certainly as good as any conscripts that the Confederate government could have sent forward to recruit our army a
act that, on the third day of March, 1863, an act of the United States Congress was approved, which provides for conscription, though generally designated the Enrolment act. On the 17th of March, 1863, the Bureau for Enrolment and Conscription was organized under Brigadier-General James B. Fry as Provost-Marshal General (see his report, page 13), and on the 1st of May, 1863, an order was issued giving it the superintendence of the entire volunteer recruiting system (same page): After the 3d of March there were no more calls on the States except for emergency men. The Provost-Marshal General, in his report (page 2), says: One million one hundred and twenty thousand six hundred and twenty-one (1,120,621) men were raised, at an average cost (on account of recruitment, exclusive of bounties) of nine dollars and eighty-four cents ($9.84) per man; while the cost of recruiting the one million three hundred and fifty-six thousand five hundred and ninety-three (1,356,593) raised prior to
ere from those States, the greater number being from North Carolina. So if recruits were received to any extent by the Army of Northern Virginia between the 31st of May, 1863, and the time that army crossed the Potomac, my division returns would indicate the fact. That they do not do so is very conclusive evidence that the assumption of the Comte de Paris is wholly unwarranted. Note.--In a communication to the Secretary of the Southern Historical Society from the Comte de Paris, dated March 23d, he states that he has now obtained a full copy of the returns of the Army of Northern Virginia for May 31st, 1863, by permission of the Adjutant-General of the United States army, but it does not appear that he has either applied for or obtained a copy of the return of Meade's army for the 30th of June, 1863, or at any other time — a fact which does not argue that diligent and impartial research which should characterize one who assumes the role of an historian. In making his deduction
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