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Jackson (Mississippi, United States) (search for this): chapter 4.35
out, and the proclamations of Governors as far away as Ohio and Massachusetts would not have seemed tame to the Romans after Cannae. The most important result of Jackson's dash was the stoppage of McDowell, who had already begun the movement that in three days would have united him with McClellan. A large part of McDowell's army was ordered back after Jackson, and the remainder was held for the time at Fredericksburg. Relieved by Jackson's success of the fear of McDowell's forces from the North, Johnston, who had determined to attack McClellan before the junction, if possible, postponed his attack until the advance of a part of the latter's army on the . Jackson was directed to be prepared to move to the same place from the Valley at the critical moment. (General Webb is in error in attributing this movement to Jackson himself, as he does on page 122. Jackson had been constantly instructed to keep such a movement in view, as may be seen from General Lee's letter to him of May 16
Hampton Roads (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 4.35
ducement to this plan was that the Federal army might by a rapid movement interpose itself between Richmond and General Johnston. With the Confederates behind the Rappahannock this last could no longer be hoped for, and General McClellan now had recourse to the alternative plan which he had kept in reserve (General Webb calls it a dernier ressort, p. 30) of making his base at Fortress Monroe and advancing thence up the Peninsula. The brilliant naval victory of the Virginia (March 8) in Hampton Roads closed the James for the time, but the Federal fleet in the lower Chesapeake was able to confine the formidable iron-clad to that river, and thus the bay and the York river up to Yorktown were open to the unmolested use of the Federal commander. By the first of April a large part of McClellan's army was at Fort Monroe and ready to go forward. The closing weeks of March and the early ones of April were anxious ones to the Confederates. McClellan's great army was evidently on the move
Gloucester Point (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 4.35
l held Norfolk and the Navy Yard, where they were preparing the ram, Virginia, to introduce a new era into naval warfare. Magruder, with 11,000 men, watched the peninsula between the James and York, and by means of his works at Yorktown and Gloucester Point, closed the latter river above that point. In the West heavy reverses had already befallen the Confederate arms, and still greater were impending, so that nothing could be drawn from that quarter to strengthen the slender means with which tskilful or successful than those by which Magruder accomplished his task. Magruder's line stretched across the Peninsula from Yorktown to Mulberry Point on the James. With 6,000 of his men he garrisoned the extremities of his line, holding Gloucester Point and closing the York river by his batteries. The other 5,000 held the line of the Warwick creek, which he had converted into a formidable line of defense by the use of all the resources that nature and engineering skill had placed within hi
Richmond (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 4.35
and the destruction of the iron-clad Virginia quickly gave to the Federals the command of the James river up to Drewry's Bluff. This caused Johnston to retire across the Chickahominy and take positiIt was. now that McClellan made his wisest move in the campaign. He had been thinking of the James river as a base, and now cut off from the Pamunkey, he determined to move towards the James at its d some Federal artillery that had taken position at Malvern under the fire of the gunboats in James river, and Holmes was quickly and completely checked. Longstreet and A. P. Hill, however, attackedison's Landing (or Westover), where he could be more completely protected by the fleet in the James river. The Confederates followed, but the check at Malvern made their pursuit slow, and when the aoke up the campaign against Richmond, and having huddled up the Federal army on the banks of the James, left it to a July sun to force the speedy evacuation of the Peninsula and the withdrawal of the
Charles City (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 4.35
much demoralization in the Federal army as indicated by Heintzelman's precipitate retreat and the destruction of stores, Sumner was able to hold his ground and keep Magruder at bay until night-fall, when the Federals made good their retreat to the south side of White Oak Swamp. Next day, June 30th, was the day of greatest peril to the Federal army. Jackson having crossed the Chickahominy, was ordered to follow in its wake towards White Oak Swamp. Huger was directed to press along the Charles City road. Longstreet, with his own and A. P. Hill's divisions, was to attack its flank along the Long-Bridge road. Nearer the James, Holmes was advancing along the River road. Magruder was directed to make a circuit around Huger and follow Longstreet. Jackson soon reached White Oak Swamp and found the passage of this difficult stream strongly defended by Franklin. A severe artillery fight took place, in which the Federal batteries suffered greatly, but Jackson's efforts to reconstruct
Cross Keys (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 4.35
erate Commander at once began preparations for a renewal of the struggle. Troops that could be spared from the South were ordered to Richmond. Jackson was directed to be prepared to move to the same place from the Valley at the critical moment. (General Webb is in error in attributing this movement to Jackson himself, as he does on page 122. Jackson had been constantly instructed to keep such a movement in view, as may be seen from General Lee's letter to him of May 16.) The victories of Cross Keys and Port Republic, on June 8 and June 9, made the withdrawal of McDowell's corps from McClellan permanent, and left Jackson free to join Lee. Meantime the latter was busy in preparation. On June 11 Stuart was sent with the Confederate cavalry to reconnoiter McClellan's right and rear. This gallant cavalryman extended his reconnoissance into a raid completely around the Federal army, cutting its communications and destroying supplies as he went. This expedition, one of the most brilliant
West Point (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 4.35
er had induced President Lincoln to agree to his plan of transporting the mass of his army to Urbana, on the lower Rappahannock, for an advance thence by way of West Point on Richmond. A main inducement to this plan was that the Federal army might by a rapid movement interpose itself between Richmond and General Johnston. With t loss of over 2,200, and effectually checked the pursuit. McClellan sent a large force, headed by Franklin's division by water to the head of the York opposite West Point, with the purpose of there landing and seizing the Confederate line of retreat; but Johnston attacked the first troops that landed vigorously, drove them back tbout one-third of his army held the north side of the Chickahominy as high up as Meadow Bridge, and at the same time covered his communications with his base at West Point, on the Pamunkey. Lee determined to attack the Federal right wing, overwhelm it if possible, and destroy McClellan's communications and depots. McClellan woul
Fortress Monroe (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 4.35
is army to Urbana, on the lower Rappahannock, for an advance thence by way of West Point on Richmond. A main inducement to this plan was that the Federal army might by a rapid movement interpose itself between Richmond and General Johnston. With the Confederates behind the Rappahannock this last could no longer be hoped for, and General McClellan now had recourse to the alternative plan which he had kept in reserve (General Webb calls it a dernier ressort, p. 30) of making his base at Fortress Monroe and advancing thence up the Peninsula. The brilliant naval victory of the Virginia (March 8) in Hampton Roads closed the James for the time, but the Federal fleet in the lower Chesapeake was able to confine the formidable iron-clad to that river, and thus the bay and the York river up to Yorktown were open to the unmolested use of the Federal commander. By the first of April a large part of McClellan's army was at Fort Monroe and ready to go forward. The closing weeks of March and
Drewry's Bluff (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 4.35
vigorously, drove them back to the cover of their gunboats, and penned them up there until his army trains had passed on towards the Chickahominy. Baffled thus in his movements against both the flank and rear of the retreating army, McClellan was content to follow slowly and with great caution. The retreat from Yorktown involved the evacuation of Norfolk by the Confederates; and the destruction of the iron-clad Virginia quickly gave to the Federals the command of the James river up to Drewry's Bluff. This caused Johnston to retire across the Chickahominy and take position in front of Richmond; and on May 21 the Federal army advanced to the line of the Chickahominy. So far boldness and skill in strategy had given the Confederates the advantage in the campaign, but the Federals were gathering from different directions in overwhelming force, and it was evident that a great battle, or battles, must soon be fought for the possession of Richmond. The disparity of numbers against the
Quaker (West Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 4.35
extreme Confederate right, ran against Porter and some Federal artillery that had taken position at Malvern under the fire of the gunboats in James river, and Holmes was quickly and completely checked. Longstreet and A. P. Hill, however, attacked vigorously at Frazier's farm, and defeated and put to flight the greater part of McCall's division, capturing its commander and inflicting severe losses on the troops brought up in support. At night-fall the Confederates had pressed nearly to the Quaker road, on which the Federals were retreating, and had taken many prisoners and ten guns. Longstreet was unsupported, however, and the Federals were able to hold on to their line of retreat until dark, when they fell back to Malvern Hill. This was the day big with fate to McClellan. Had Jackson and Huger co-operated with Longstreet in his assault, the result can hardly be doubted; the greater part of the Federal army must have been overwhelmed. Huger, though nearest Longstreet, did nothing
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