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y of the corps. The general artillery reserve, which had been commanded by Pendleton, was broken up, on the organization of the 3d corps, and it was never reestablished. Pendleton, however, was retained as chief of artillery. It is worthy of note that this artillery organization of a few batteries with each division, and a reserve with each corps, but with no general reserve for the army, was the first of the kind ever adopted by any foreign army, and that it was subsequently copied by Prussia and Austria after 1866, and by France after 1870, and later by England. But, although our reserve under Pendleton had never found the opportunity to render much service, its being discontinued was due to our poverty of guns, not to dissatisfaction with the system. And the fine service at Gettysburg by the Federal reserve of 110 guns, under Hunt, would seem to demonstrate the advantage of such an organization in every large army. On Wednesday, June 3, Lee began the delicate operation of
Westminster (Maryland, United States) (search for this): chapter 16
loss of time which made, on the whole, a sad failure of the expedition. On the 29th, the Baltimore and Ohio R. R. was crossed and torn up at Hood's Mills. At Westminster about 5 P. M., a squadron of Federal cavalry was routed, and the head of the column bivouacked that night midway between Westminster and Littletown. Had it herWestminster and Littletown. Had it here followed the direct road, via Littletown to Gettysburg, only about 16 miles away, it could have occupied Gettysburg before 11 A. M. on the 30th, where it would have found itself in good position in front of Lee's army, then concentrating at Cashtown. It might, however, have had a severe fight with Buford's two brigades of cavalrps was between York and Carlisle, and, on the 29th, put his whole army in motion in that direction, encamping that night on a line extending from Emmitsburg to Westminster. On the 30th, his advanced corps moved forward within a few miles of Gettysburg on his left, to Littletown in the centre, and toward Manchester on his right.
Chambersburg, Pa. (Pennsylvania, United States) (search for this): chapter 16
s raid. Carlisle. results of raid. across the Potomac. Hooker relieved. Chambersburg. return of scout. orders. chance encounter. Hill to Gettysburg. Meade's was a painful one. Meanwhile, Lee, with Longstreet and Hill, had reached Chambersburg and bivouacked in its neighborhood from June 27 to the 29th. The Federal areville to Cashtown, and was followed by Longstreet with Hood and McLaws from Chambersburg as far as Greenwood, about 11 miles. Here they bivouacked about 2 P. M. Lee his march, and also bivouacked at Greenwood. Pickett's division was left at Chambersburg to guard the rear until Imboden's cavalry should arrive, and Law's brigade wof victory. On July 1, of his nine divisions, Pickett's was in bivouac at Chambersburg. The other eight, except Law's brigade, were all in motion toward Gettysburout 20 miles. Pickett's division was also upon the road, having marched from Chambersburg at 2 A. M. It made 22 miles and encamped within three miles of Gettysburg at
Dover, N. H. (New Hampshire, United States) (search for this): chapter 16
it done so, Lee's army would have occupied some strong position between Cashtown and Gettysburg, and the onus of attack would have been upon the Federals, as had been the plan of the campaign. But his orders led Stuart toward the Susquehanna, so he proceeded north to Hanover, which was reached at 10 A. M. on the 30th. Here he had a sharp skirmish with Kilpatrick's cavalry. Hampered by his 125 captured wagons, he turned squarely to the right, and, making a detour by Jefferson, he reached Dover on the morning of July 1, crossing during the night the road on which Early's division had marched on the 30th from York to Heidlersburg. Here he learned that Early had gone toward Shippensburg. Stuart was practically lost, and had to guess in which direction he should go to find Lee's army. Lee was now beginning the battle of Gettysburg, 25 miles off to the southwest. Stuart's report says:— After as little rest as was compatible with the exhausted condition of the command, I pushed
Virginia (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 16
he aggressive, and the whole spring and summer passed idly. At Knoxville were about 5000 Confederates under Buckner, and there were also scattered brigades in southwest Va. and eastern N. C., from which reinforcements might be drawn. In this state of affairs, Longstreet, with Hood's and Pickett's divisions, arrived in Petersburg,orse's at Hanover Junction. Lee proposed that when his column of invasion crossed the Potomac, these two brigades, reenforced by whatever could be drawn from lower Virginia and the Carolinas, should form a column commanded by Beauregard, who should come from Charleston for the purpose. This column, with some parade of its intentepartment south of the James. He was a North Carolinian, and was very acceptable to the State authorities, who objected if too many North Carolinians were taken to Va., leaving N. C. exposed to Federal raids. There was an earnestness about D. H. Hill's fighting which was like Jackson's at its best. Had opportunity come to him, h
Brandy Station (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 16
Chapter 16: Gettysburg: the first day High tide. opportunity open. suggestion made. invasion. special feature. feature impossible. reorganization. armament. Lee moves. Brandy Station. Ewell in Valley. captured property. Hooker moves. Lincoln suggests. Lee in Valley. Stuart proposes raid. conditional consent. Stuart's raid. Carlisle. results of raid. across the Potomac. Hooker relieved. Chambersburg. return of scout. orders. chance encounter. Hill to Gettysbus entire army. Meanwhile, Hooker had sent Buford's and Gregg's divisions of cavalry, supported by Russell's and Ames's brigades of infantry, to attack Stuart's camps near the Rappahannock. A severe cavalry battle resulted on the 9th, near Brandy Station. The enemy's attack was a surprise, and the isolated Confederate brigades, first encountered, were so roughly handled that help was called for from the infantry and artillery. My own battalion and an infantry force were sent to the field, b
Upperville (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 16
the 14th, and, on the 15th, Longstreet marched from Culpeper to take position east of the Blue Ridge, while Hill passed in his rear and crossed the mountains to Winchester via Front Royal. When Hill was safely in the Valley, Longstreet also entered through Ashby's and Snicker's gaps, and about the 20th the two corps were united. The cavalry had acted as a screen in front of Longstreet during this advance, and, in this duty, had severe encounters with the enemy at Aldie, Middleburg, and Upperville, losing in them over 500 in killed, wounded, and missing. About June 22, as Hill and Longstreet drew near the Potomac, ready to cross, Stuart made to Lee a very unwise proposition, which Lee more unwisely entertained. It was destined to have an unfortunate influence on the campaign. Stuart thus refers to the matter in his official report:— I submitted to the commanding general the plan of leaving a brigade or so in my present front, passing through Hopewell or some other gap in th
Taneytown (Maryland, United States) (search for this): chapter 16
e corps had been hastened to find the defensive battle-field; and their arrivals upon it had been about as follows: — Geary's division of the 12th corps had arrived about 6 P. M. and was placed on the left of the Federal line by Hancock. Williams's division of the same corps bivouacked near Rock Creek Bridge that night. The advance of the 3d corps came upon the field about sunset. During the night, or early in the morning, the entire corps arrived. The 2d corps, having come from Taneytown, also reached the field soon after nightfall, and was all at hand in the morning. The 5th corps, marching from Hanover at 7 P. M., arrived on the field, 14 miles, at 8 A. M. on the 2d. The 6th corps, from the Union right at Manchester, arrived about 2 P. M., after a march of about 32 miles in 17 hours. At 8 A. M. of the 2d, therefore, practically the whole of both armies was upon the field except Pickett's division and Law's brigade of the Confederates, and the 6th corps of the Fe
Africa (Pennsylvania, United States) (search for this): chapter 16
e to Cashtown, and was followed by Longstreet with Hood and McLaws from Chambersburg as far as Greenwood, about 11 miles. Here they bivouacked about 2 P. M. Lee accompanied this march, and also bivouacked at Greenwood. Pickett's division was left at Chambersburg to guard the rear until Imboden's cavalry should arrive, and Law's brigade was detached from Hood's division and sent to New Guilford htown at 5 A. M., and become engaged at Gettysburg about 10. Soon after Anderson had passed Greenwood, Hood and McLaws were starting to follow, when they encountered Johnson's division of the 2d cden back from his interview with Lee to meet his troops, who, about 4 P. M., marched from near Greenwood with orders to come to Gettysburg, 17 miles. About midnight they bivouacked four miles from thWashington artillery and Alexander's battalion), which was ordered to follow the infantry from Greenwood at midnight, was much detained upon the road by passing trains, and did not reach the field un
Dranesville (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 16
nture. Longstreet, thus suddenly called on to decide the question, seems not to have appreciated its importance, for he decided it on the imaginary ground that the passage of the Potomac by our rear would, in a measure, disclose our plans. Accordingly, about midnight of June 24, Stuart, with Hampton's, W. H. F. Lee's, and Fitz-Lee's brigades, six guns, and some ambulances, marched from Salem, for the Potomac River. Making a circuit by Brentsville, Wolf Run shoals, Fairfax C. H., and Dranesville, he crossed the Potomac at Rowser's Ford at midnight of the 27th, about 80 miles by the route travelled. The ford was barely passable. The water came on the saddles of the horses and entirely submerged the artillery carriages. These were emptied and the ammunition carried across by hand. Here the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal was cut. Next morning at Rockville, a train of wagons eight miles long was captured, and 400 prisoners were taken and paroled. In saving a large number of wagons, i
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