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olonel Martin on July 3, to do certain things which were precisely the things specified in the proclamation of July 8, and not to aid the United States marshals in doing those things or any others. Yet it was not until July 9, six days after the order to Colonel Martin, that those duties became clearly defined, and then they were misunderstood in the very essential particulars above specified. The lawless interruptions of traffic on the Pacific roads had continued from the latter part of April till early in July,—two months and a half,—in spite of all the efforts to enforce the laws, in each special case, by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings. Yet as soon as full discretionary authority was given to the several department commanders to act promptly as each emergency might require, all obstruction to the operations of the Pacific railroads rapidly disappeared. The ordinary course of judicial proceedings is generally far too slow to produce satisfactory results when mil
m they were referred for information, and much more from lack of knowledge of the lawful relations existing between the national troops and the civil authorities in this country, although those relations had been plainly defined in an order dated May 25, quoted below. Like ignorance in respect to the proper tactical methods of dealing with insurrection against the authority of the United States caused halting and ineffective action of the troops. To correct this error and make known to all the It appears to have been thought in Chicago that the request of the United States marshal, with whom the commanding officer of the troops had been directed to confer, was equivalent to orders of the War Department, notwithstanding the order of May 25, above quoted, strictly prohibiting any such use of troops. Hence the faulty disposition of the troops which was corrected when the mob was approaching the heart of the city. Then some of the troops on the outskirts of the city were withdrawn,
ly 3, to do certain things which were precisely the things specified in the proclamation of July 8, and not to aid the United States marshals in doing those things or any others. Yet it was not until July 9, six days after the order to Colonel Martin, that those duties became clearly defined, and then they were misunderstood in the very essential particulars above specified. The lawless interruptions of traffic on the Pacific roads had continued from the latter part of April till early in July,—two months and a half,—in spite of all the efforts to enforce the laws, in each special case, by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings. Yet as soon as full discretionary authority was given to the several department commanders to act promptly as each emergency might require, all obstruction to the operations of the Pacific railroads rapidly disappeared. The ordinary course of judicial proceedings is generally far too slow to produce satisfactory results when military force is requi
ence remained in the Eastern States, where he had gone some time before. From this it resulted that when the troops at Fort Sheridan were ordered into Chicago, the execution of the order devolved on subordinate officers, and the troops were so dispersed as to be unable to act with the necessary effect. It having become apparent that the services of troops would probably be required in the city of Chicago, and in anticipation of orders from the President, instructions were telegraphed on July 2 to the commanding general of the Department of the Missouri to make preparations to move the garrison of Fort Sheridan to the Lake Front Park in the city. The reply of his staff-officer, Colonel Martin, showed that the department commander, Major-General Miles, was not in Chicago, and the adjutant-general of the army did not know where he was, but, after several inquiries by telegraph, learned that the general had started that afternoon from Long Island for Washington instead of for Chicago
, after several inquiries by telegraph, learned that the general had started that afternoon from Long Island for Washington instead of for Chicago. The next day (July 3), in the President's room at the Executive Mansion, in reply to my suggestion that his presence was needed with his command, General Miles said he was subject to e to meet the emergency. It became necessary in the judgment of the President to order the Fort Sheridan garrison into the city in the afternoon of the same day (July 3). The instructions given the day before about moving the troops to Lake Front Park were not complied with. From that point they could most readily have proteced a part of the military forces of the United States—not is about to employ, but has employed, under specific orders, which were telegraphed to Colonel Martin on July 3, to do certain things which were precisely the things specified in the proclamation of July 8, and not to aid the United States marshals in doing those things or
e interests of humanity, and to concern, in some way, the State militia, as if they had been called into service of the United States. It was the duty of the military forces to aid the United States marshals. Again, it is expected the State and municipal governments will maintain peace and good order. . . . Should they fail or be overpowered, the military forces will assist them . . .—and this notwithstanding the well-known law on that subject to which allusion was made in the despatch of July 5 from the headquarters of the army. The President's proclamation was strictly limited to the purpose of enforcing the faithful execution of the laws of the United States, and protecting its property, and removing obstructions to the United States mails, for which purpose the proclamation stated the President has employed a part of the military forces of the United States—not is about to employ, but has employed, under specific orders, which were telegraphed to Colonel Martin on July 3, to
ere telegraphed to Colonel Martin on July 3, to do certain things which were precisely the things specified in the proclamation of July 8, and not to aid the United States marshals in doing those things or any others. Yet it was not until July 9, six days after the order to Colonel Martin, that those duties became clearly defined, and then they were misunderstood in the very essential particulars above specified. The lawless interruptions of traffic on the Pacific roads had continued from tn act of war, and would be so treated. I heard no more on that subject. That interpretation of the Pacific Railroad acts was suggested several times, but never officially accepted until 1894. The following are in substance the orders sent on July 6 and 7, by the President's direction, to all the department commanders ill the country traversed by the Pacific railroads, and the President's proclamation which followed two days later, under the operation of which traffic was resumed throughout
ht telegraph those people in Denver, but not for publication, that I was traveling over a military road, on military duty, under orders from the commander-in-chief of the army; that interference with that journey would be regarded by me as an act of war, and would be so treated. I heard no more on that subject. That interpretation of the Pacific Railroad acts was suggested several times, but never officially accepted until 1894. The following are in substance the orders sent on July 6 and 7, by the President's direction, to all the department commanders ill the country traversed by the Pacific railroads, and the President's proclamation which followed two days later, under the operation of which traffic was resumed throughout all that vast region of country as rapidly as trains conveying troops could be moved. No serious opposition or resistance was offered anywhere. (Telegram.) Headquarters of the army, Washington, July 7, 1894. brigadier-General Otis, Commanding Depart
t of the guilty, this warning is especially intended to protect and save the innocent. In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be hereto affixed. Done at the city of Washington, this eighth day of July, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninetyfour, and of the independence of the United States the one hundred and nineteenth. Grover Cleveland. By the President: W. Q. Gresham, Secretary of State. (General oof the military forces of the United States—not is about to employ, but has employed, under specific orders, which were telegraphed to Colonel Martin on July 3, to do certain things which were precisely the things specified in the proclamation of July 8, and not to aid the United States marshals in doing those things or any others. Yet it was not until July 9, six days after the order to Colonel Martin, that those duties became clearly defined, and then they were misunderstood in the very essen
rules which must govern United States troops in all like emergencies, the subjoined order, dated July 9, was issued. The extracts from correspondence quoted below indicate the nature of the errors abse and retire peaceably to their respective abodes on or before twelve o'clock noon on the ninth day of July instant. Those who disregard this warning and persist in taking part with a riotous mob orders from Washington indicated that the Fort Sheridan garrison should be at that place. On July 9, the day after the President had issued his proclamation, it appeared in Chicago that the dutiesnot to aid the United States marshals in doing those things or any others. Yet it was not until July 9, six days after the order to Colonel Martin, that those duties became clearly defined, and then the seal of the United States to be hereto affixed. Done at the city of Washington, this ninth day of July, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety-four, and of the independen
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