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favor, since they aimed at nothing practical or troublesome, except petitions to Congress, and served as a moral palliative to the continuance of the practice. The abolition of the African slave-trade by Great Britain in 1807, and by the United States in 1808, came as a great relief to the abolition societies, which had grown discouraged by the evident impossibility of effecting anything in the South, and were now ready to accept this success as the limit of possibility for the present. In 1801, Thomas Jefferson and Gov. James Monroe, of Virginia, had considerable correspondence on the subject of colonizing free blacks outside of the country. In the autumn of 1816, a society for this purpose was organized in Princeton, N. J. The Virginia Legislature commended the matter to the government, and in December, 1816, the National Colonization Society met in Washington. Its object was to encourage emancipation by procuring a place outside of the United States, preferably in Africa, to wh
e prosecuted their work with more success than the original society. In 1839-40 the liberty party (q. v.) was formed, and in the Presidential election of 1844 Birney and Morris received 62,300 votes, most of which would have gone to Clay, and thus made possible the election of Polk, the annexation of Texas. and the addition of an immense amount of slave territory to the United States. In the next two Presidential elections the abolitionists voted with the free soil party (q. v.), and after 1856 with the Republicans, though rather as an auxiliary than as an integral part of the party. During the period 1850-60 the most active exertions of the abolitionists were centred in assisting fugitive slaves to reach places of safety in Canada (see fugitive slave law and underground Railway). The result of the Civil War (1861-65) was the total abolition of slavery in all the States. Soon after the adoption of the Thirteenth Amendment, the publication of The liberator ceased and the Anti-Slave
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