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nited States exports of more than $20,000,000, chiefly in manufactured articles. From Africa the increase in imports was $6,000,000, principally in manufacturers' materials, of which raw cotton forms the most important item, while the exports increased meantime $17,000,000, chiefly in manufactures. The following tables show the imports and exports of the United States by grand divisions in the calendar years 1890 and 1900. In the figures showing the distribution by continents in 1900 the December distribution was estimated, though the grand total of imports and exports for 1900 is based upon the complete figures of the Bureau of Statistics: Exports. Continent.1890.1900. Europe$682,585,856 $1,111,456,000 North America 95,517,863 202,486,000 South America 34,722,122 41,384,000 Asia 22,854,028 60,598.000 Oceanica 17,375,745 39,956,000 Africa 4,446,934 22,170,000 Imports. Continent.1890.1900. Europe $474,656,257 $439,500,000 North America151,490,330 131,200,000 South A
parts of the world, have greatly increased the volume of the circulating medium and encouraged the creation of a single and well-defined standard of value, so that the merchant may make his sales and purchases with an assurance that payments will be made in a measure of value acceptable to the whole world, and losses and uncertainty of traffic thus avoided. The supply of this precious metal has increased enormously during the century. Chevalier estimated that the amount of gold in Europe in 1492 was but $60,000,000. From that time to the beginning of the century, the average gold production was about $8,000,000 a year; from 1800 to 1850, about $15,000,000 a year; and, since that date, it has ranged steadily upward, until it has reached over $300,000,000 a year, thus multiplying many times the stock of the standard metal of the world. The result of this is that 95 per cent. of the commerce of the world is now carried on between nations having a fixed and wellregulated currency, with
mbining imports and exports to obtain the total commerce, at $2.31 per capita in 1800, $2.34 in 1830, $3.76 in 1850, $6.01 in 1860, $8.14 in 1870, $10.26 in 1880, $11 the carrying power of vessels on the ocean had increased from 4,026,000 tons in 1800, to 10,482,000 in 1840; 21,730,000 in 1860; 37,900,000 in 1880; 48,800,000 in 18ng of the century, the average gold production was about $8,000,000 a year; from 1800 to 1850, about $15,000,000 a year; and, since that date, it has ranged steadily otal exports. Comparing the commerce in domestic goods during 1899 with that of 1800, it is found that the percentage of increase is very much greater than that showsaid of our commerce of 1900, that the imports are about ten times as much as in 1800, and the exports twenty times as much as the nominal figure of 1800. What of 1800. What of the twentieth century? Can its commerce, and all those conveniences of traffic and intercourse which go to stimulate and create commerce, show such a marvellous gro
commodities throughout the commercial world at the beginning of the century is estimated at $1,500,000,000 in value, and at the end of the century fully $20,000,000,000. Meantime, the population, which is estimated by Malte-Brun at 640,000,000 in 1804, is now estimated in round terms at about 1,500,000,000, the increase in population having thus been 135 per cent., while the increase in commerce has been 1,233 per cent. While these statements of the commerce of the earlier years of the centur000 18702,775,000,000213,400,00011,910,0001,263,015,000 18803,601,000,000340,000,00018,140,0001,150,814,000 18905,600,000,000466,000,00025,160,0001,060,052,000 18985,900,000,000610,000,00037,150,0001,950,000,000 (a)Malte-Brun's estimate for 1804.(e)Levasseur's estimate for 1878. (b)Based on Balbi's estimate for 1828.(f)Royal Geographical Society estimate. (c)Based on Michelet's estimate for 1845.(g)Mulhall's estimates, except 1830, 1890, and 1898. (d)Based on Behm-Wagner estimate for 1
e slightest suspicion could be charged—practically suspended European commerce. In addition to this, the danger from pirates, which then constantly existed in certain parts of the ocean, was increased during war times. During the first fifteen years of the century, British, French, and finally all European vessels were practically prohibited from engaging in commerce by the Napoleonic wars, and the commerce of the world was largely thrown into the hands of our own shipping, until the War of 1812 and the events immediately preceding it. With the advance of the century, wars became less frequent, and of shorter duration when entered on; while piracy has been generally suppressed, international laws for the protection of shipping enacted, and regulations established for the protection of those engaging in commerce. Not only has the actual loss from these causes been materially reduced, but the increased safety and absence of danger from losses have encouraged the increase in shipping a
last enormous total but 11,450,000 was sailing tonnage. Not only has greater carrying power come on land and sea, but with it increased speed and safety. A century ago the voyage to Europe occupied over a month, and was a cause for constant anxiety as to the life of those travelling and the cargo carried by the vessel; now it is a holiday excursion of five days, in which there is no more thought of danger than on the cycle-path or an elevated railway. News of the West India hurricane in 1818 reached the United States fully thirty days after its occurrence, while Havana is to-day less than forty-eight hours from New York. The first vessel from New York to China occupied fifteen months on its round trip, and a voyage to the Orient, before the introduction of steam, occupied from eight to twelve months for the round trip, while now it can be accomplished both ways in a little over one month. Not only have recent years brought increased speed and facility in the moving of commerce,
0,000. A single instance will indicate the development which the railroad gives to the commerce of a country. India, with 300,000,000 of population and 22,000 miles of railway, has seen her commerce increase nearly 60 per cent. in the past twenty-five years, while that of China, with 400,000,000 of people, but no railways, has increased about 30 per cent. in that time. In the meanwhile steam had also revolutionized the carrying-trade on the ocean. The first steamship crossed the ocean in 1819, and the total steam tonnage afloat in 1820 is estimated at 20,000 tons, against 5,814,000 of sail tonnage. By 1840, steam tonnage had increased to 368,090, while sail has grown to 9,012,000; by 1860, steam had reached 1,710,000, while sail was 14,890,000; by 1870, steam tonnage was 3,040,000, and sail had dropped to 13,000,000; by 1880, steam had become 5,880,000, and sail 14,400,000; by 1890, steam had reached 9,040,000, and sail had dropped to 12,640,000; and, in 1898, the steam tonnage w
ngland in 1825, and in the United States in 1830, the number of miles of railway in the world in 1830 being about 200. In that year, the world's commerce, according to the best estimates obtainable, was $1,981,000,000 as against $1,659,000,000 in 1820, an increase in the decade of barely 17 per cent., while in the preceding decades of the century the increase had been even less. By 1840, railways had increased to 5,420 miles, and commerce had increased to $2,789,000,000, an increase of 40 per 000 of people, but no railways, has increased about 30 per cent. in that time. In the meanwhile steam had also revolutionized the carrying-trade on the ocean. The first steamship crossed the ocean in 1819, and the total steam tonnage afloat in 1820 is estimated at 20,000 tons, against 5,814,000 of sail tonnage. By 1840, steam tonnage had increased to 368,090, while sail has grown to 9,012,000; by 1860, steam had reached 1,710,000, while sail was 14,890,000; by 1870, steam tonnage was 3,040,
vention, finance, peace. The effect upon commerce of the use of steam as a motive power can scarcely be realized, until the progress of its development is compared with the progress of commerce. Then it is seen that the marked advance in the interchange of commodities was simultaneous with the development of the steamship and railway, and that the growth of the one was coincident with that of the other. The application of steam to transportation of merchandise by rail began in England in 1825, and in the United States in 1830, the number of miles of railway in the world in 1830 being about 200. In that year, the world's commerce, according to the best estimates obtainable, was $1,981,000,000 as against $1,659,000,000 in 1820, an increase in the decade of barely 17 per cent., while in the preceding decades of the century the increase had been even less. By 1840, railways had increased to 5,420 miles, and commerce had increased to $2,789,000,000, an increase of 40 per cent. From 1
025,100,0001,585,00094,419,000 18401,310,000,00044,800,0002,680,000134,841,000 18501,435,000,00081,400,0004,422,000363,928,000 18602,551,000,000142,300,0007,180,0001,333,981,000 18702,775,000,000213,400,00011,910,0001,263,015,000 18803,601,000,000340,000,00018,140,0001,150,814,000 18905,600,000,000466,000,00025,160,0001,060,052,000 18985,900,000,000610,000,00037,150,0001,950,000,000 (a)Malte-Brun's estimate for 1804.(e)Levasseur's estimate for 1878. (b)Based on Balbi's estimate for 1828.(f)Royal Geographical Society estimate. (c)Based on Michelet's estimate for 1845.(g)Mulhall's estimates, except 1830, 1890, and 1898. (d)Based on Behm-Wagner estimate for 1874.(h)Saetbeer's estimates prior to 1860. To discuss the part which the various nations have had in this commerce, the relations of imports to exports, or the classes of articles exchanged between the great sections of the globe, would carry this study beyond reasonable limits. In all of the above statements, the ter
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