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e interests of commerce may take further advantage of currents of air and water which move ever westward as the earth revolves ever towards the east; other ship canals will connect our Great Lakes with the ocean, and steamships from Europe and the Mediterrane countries and the Orient will land their merchandise at the docks of Chicago and Duluth, and the other great commercial cities of our inland seas; a great railway system will stretch from South America to Bering Straits, thence down the eastern coast of Siberia, through China, Siam, Burmah, across India, Persia, Arabia, past the pyramids of Egypt to the westernmost point of Africa, where only 1,600 miles of ocean will intervene to prevent the complete encircling of the earth with a belt of steel, whose branches will penetrate to every habitable part of every continent, and place men in all climes and all nations and all continents in constant communication with each other and facilitate the interchange of commodities between them.
Duluth (Minnesota, United States) (search for this): entry commerce-of-the-united-states
between continents and great trading centres; a ship canal will connect the waters of the Atlantic and Pacific; and vessels circumnavigating the globe in the interests of commerce may take further advantage of currents of air and water which move ever westward as the earth revolves ever towards the east; other ship canals will connect our Great Lakes with the ocean, and steamships from Europe and the Mediterrane countries and the Orient will land their merchandise at the docks of Chicago and Duluth, and the other great commercial cities of our inland seas; a great railway system will stretch from South America to Bering Straits, thence down the eastern coast of Siberia, through China, Siam, Burmah, across India, Persia, Arabia, past the pyramids of Egypt to the westernmost point of Africa, where only 1,600 miles of ocean will intervene to prevent the complete encircling of the earth with a belt of steel, whose branches will penetrate to every habitable part of every continent, and plac
reased during that time from $95,000,000 to $202,000,000. From South America the imports increased from $101,000,000 in 1890 to $102,000,000 in 1900, while to South America the exports increased from $35,000,000 to $41,000,000. From Asia the imports into the United States increasethe latter being presumably re-exported thence to Europe. From South America the imports increased in quantity, especially in coffee and rub2,585,856 $1,111,456,000 North America 95,517,863 202,486,000 South America 34,722,122 41,384,000 Asia 22,854,028 60,598.000 Oceanica 17,474,656,257 $439,500,000 North America151,490,330 131,200,000 South America100,959,799 102,000,000 Asia 68,340,309 122,800,000 Oceanica 2ed in another part. The great fertile plains of North America, South America, Australia, and Russia have become the world's producers of graes of our inland seas; a great railway system will stretch from South America to Bering Straits, thence down the eastern coast of Siberia, th
y contemporaneous with steam, has also performed an important part in increasing the activity and volume of commerce. The merchant who desired to send a cargo across the ocean or to the other side of the globe did so formerly at great risk as to prices, or else after long correspondence and vexatious delays. Now, not only the dealer in the cities, but the very farmer who grows the grain, or the workman who produces the iron and steel, knows this evening what was its price in the markets of London and other parts of the world this morning. The merchant who desires to sell in Europe may contract his goods before shipping, and those who would make purchases in the Orient or the tropics can give their orders to-day, with the confidence that the goods will start to-morrow and reach them at a fixed date in time for the markets at their most favorable season. The growth of the telegraph and ocean cable has, like that of the railway and steamship, being contemporaneous with the growth of c
merce. The first telegraph for commercial purposes was constructed in 1844, and so quickly did its influence become apparent that several thousand miles were in existence by 1850, while by 1860 the total had reached nearly 100,000 miles, by 1870 280,000 miles, by 1880 440,000 miles, by 1890 768,000 miles, and by 1900 1,000,000 miles. Submarine cables, by which the international commerce is guided and multiplied, date from 1851, in which year 25 miles were put into operation across the English Channel. By 1860 the total length of successful lines was about 1,500 miles, though one cable laid across the Atlantic, and another through the Red and Arabian seas, meantime, had worked long enough to prove the practicability of the enterprise. By 1870 the submarine cables in operation amounted to about 15,000 miles, by 1880 to about 50,000 miles, by 1890 to 132,000 miles, and by 1898 to 170,000 miles, the number of messages transmitted on them being 6,000,000 a year, while those by the land
India, with 300,000,000 of population and 22,000 miles of railway, has seen her commerce increase nearly 60 per cent. in the past twenty-five years, while that of China, with 400,000,000 of people, but no railways, has increased about 30 per cent. in that time. In the meanwhile steam had also revolutionized the carrying-trade oched the United States fully thirty days after its occurrence, while Havana is to-day less than forty-eight hours from New York. The first vessel from New York to China occupied fifteen months on its round trip, and a voyage to the Orient, before the introduction of steam, occupied from eight to twelve months for the round trip, wt commercial cities of our inland seas; a great railway system will stretch from South America to Bering Straits, thence down the eastern coast of Siberia, through China, Siam, Burmah, across India, Persia, Arabia, past the pyramids of Egypt to the westernmost point of Africa, where only 1,600 miles of ocean will intervene to preve
xports were increased from $682,000,000 to $1,111,000,000. From North America imports fell from $151,000,000 in 1890 to $131,000,000 in 1900, while the exports to North America increased during that time from $95,000,000 to $202,000,000. From South America the imports increased frrand division having increased $428,000,000 since 1890. From North America the imports fell $20,000,000, due principally to the falling of decreased from $54,000,000 in 1890 to $27,000,000 in 1900. To North America the exports increased in the mean time over $100,000,000, the gorts. Continent.1890.1900. Europe$682,585,856 $1,111,456,000 North America 95,517,863 202,486,000 South America 34,722,122 41,384,000 Asports. Continent.1890.1900. Europe $474,656,257 $439,500,000 North America151,490,330 131,200,000 South America100,959,799 102,000,000 A readily produced in another part. The great fertile plains of North America, South America, Australia, and Russia have become the world's p
stomed to look for manufactures, the imports fell over $35,000,000, while Europe largely increased her consumption of cotton-seed oil, oleomargarine, paraffin, manufactures of iron and steel, copper and agricultural machinery, as well as food-stuffs and cotton, the United States exports to that grand division having increased $428,000,000 since 1890. From North America the imports fell $20,000,000, due principally to the falling off of sugar productions in the West Indies, the imports from Cuba alone having decreased from $54,000,000 in 1890 to $27,000,000 in 1900. To North America the exports increased in the mean time over $100,000,000, the growth being largely manufactures and foodstuffs, a considerable portion of the latter being presumably re-exported thence to Europe. From South America the imports increased in quantity, especially in coffee and rubber, but decreased proportionately in price, so that the total increase in value in the decade was but $1,000,000, while in expo
y, as well as food-stuffs and cotton, the United States exports to that grand division having increased $428,000,000 since 1890. From North America the imports fell $20,000,000, due principally to the falling off of sugar productions in the West Indies, the imports from Cuba alone having decreased from $54,000,000 in 1890 to $27,000,000 in 1900. To North America the exports increased in the mean time over $100,000,000, the growth being largely manufactures and foodstuffs, a considerable pore for constant anxiety as to the life of those travelling and the cargo carried by the vessel; now it is a holiday excursion of five days, in which there is no more thought of danger than on the cycle-path or an elevated railway. News of the West India hurricane in 1818 reached the United States fully thirty days after its occurrence, while Havana is to-day less than forty-eight hours from New York. The first vessel from New York to China occupied fifteen months on its round trip, and a voya
he interchange of commodities was simultaneous with the development of the steamship and railway, and that the growth of the one was coincident with that of the other. The application of steam to transportation of merchandise by rail began in England in 1825, and in the United States in 1830, the number of miles of railway in the world in 1830 being about 200. In that year, the world's commerce, according to the best estimates obtainable, was $1,981,000,000 as against $1,659,000,000 in 1820y, and gold discoveries were at that moment combining to stimulate commerce, while the fact that the growth of international commerce has been continued in the face of the return to protective duties by most of the commercial nations except Great Britain, adds to the difficulty of determining how far these important occurrences were factors in the growth of international trade of that time. The following table indicates the growth of the commerce of the world during ninety-eight years of t
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