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and assist in military operations against the batteries at Memphis. In the event of this movement being successful, he proposed to push on towards the Gulf of Mexico with his army, and take possession of New Orleans. More than 20,000 soldiers were set in motion (Sept. 27, 1861) southward (5,000 of them cavalry), under the respective commands of Generals Hunter, Pope, Sigel, McKinstry, and Asboth, accompanied by eighty-six heavy guns. These were moving southward early in October; and on the 11th, when his army was 30,000 strong, he wrote to the government: My plan is, New Orleans straight; I would precipitate the war forward, and end it soon victoriously. He was marching with confidence of success, and his troops were winning little victories here and there, when, through the influence of men jealous of him and his political enemies, Fremont's career was suddenly checked. False accusers, public and private, caused General Scott to send an order for him to turn over his command to G
al, which sentenced him to be dismissed from the service, but recommended him to the clemency of the President. The penalty was remitted, and in October, 1848, Fremont entered upon his fourth exploration among the far western mountains. See Kearny, Stephen Watts; Stockton, Robert field. Fremont was in Europe when the Civil War broke out, and, leaving on receiving notice of his appointment to the army, he returned home, bringing with him arms for the government. He arrived in Boston on June 27, and July 6 he was appointed to the command of the Western Department, just created. He arrived at St. Louis July 26, where he made his headquarters. He found disorder everywhere. The terms of enlistment of home guards, or three-months' men, were expiring, and they were unwilling to reenlist. He had very little money or arms at his disposal, and was unable to send aid to General Lyon, in the southwestern portion of the State, battling with the Confederates. He resolved to assume grave
Charles 1813-1890 Explorer; born in Savannah, Ga., Jan. 21, 1813; graduated at Charleston College in 1830. His father was a Frenchman, and his mother a Virginian. He was instructor in mathematics in the United States navy from 1833 to 1835. Engaged in surveying the Cherokee country in the winter of 1837-38, he began his famous explorations, first in the country between the Missouri River and the British possessions. He had been appointed second lieutenant of topographical engineers in July. In 1841 he married a daughter of Senator Thomas H. Benton, and in May, 1842, he began, under the authority of the government, the exploration of an overland route to the Pacific Ocean. He ascended the highest peak of the Wind River Mountains, which was afterwards named Fremont's Peak. He explored the Great Salt Lake region in 1843, and penetrated to the Pacific near the mouth of the Columbia River. In 1845 he explored the Sierra Nevada in California, and in 1846 became involved in hostil
and joined Fremont's camp, and, under his leadership, these settlements were not only saved, but the Mexican authorities were driven out of California. Fremont and his followers met General de Castro and his forces, strong in numbers, when Fremont retired about 30 miles, to a mountain position, where he called around him the American settlers in that region. With these he captured a Mexican post at Sonoma Pass (June 15, 1846), with nine cannon and 250 muskets. De Castro was routed, and on July 5 the Americans in California declared themselves independent, and elected Fremont governor of the province. He then proceeded to join the American naval forces at Monterey, under Commodore Stockton, who had lately arrived, with authority from Washington to conquer California, Fremont appeared there with 160 mounted riflemen. On Aug. 17, 1846, Stockton and Fremont took possession of the city of Los Angeles; and at that place General Kearny, who had just taken possession of New Mexico, joined
ntenced him to be dismissed from the service, but recommended him to the clemency of the President. The penalty was remitted, and in October, 1848, Fremont entered upon his fourth exploration among the far western mountains. See Kearny, Stephen Watts; Stockton, Robert field. Fremont was in Europe when the Civil War broke out, and, leaving on receiving notice of his appointment to the army, he returned home, bringing with him arms for the government. He arrived in Boston on June 27, and July 6 he was appointed to the command of the Western Department, just created. He arrived at St. Louis July 26, where he made his headquarters. He found disorder everywhere. The terms of enlistment of home guards, or three-months' men, were expiring, and they were unwilling to reenlist. He had very little money or arms at his disposal, and was unable to send aid to General Lyon, in the southwestern portion of the State, battling with the Confederates. He resolved to assume grave responsibilit
enalty was remitted, and in October, 1848, Fremont entered upon his fourth exploration among the far western mountains. See Kearny, Stephen Watts; Stockton, Robert field. Fremont was in Europe when the Civil War broke out, and, leaving on receiving notice of his appointment to the army, he returned home, bringing with him arms for the government. He arrived in Boston on June 27, and July 6 he was appointed to the command of the Western Department, just created. He arrived at St. Louis July 26, where he made his headquarters. He found disorder everywhere. The terms of enlistment of home guards, or three-months' men, were expiring, and they were unwilling to reenlist. He had very little money or arms at his disposal, and was unable to send aid to General Lyon, in the southwestern portion of the State, battling with the Confederates. He resolved to assume grave responsibilities. He applied to the United States Treasurer at St. Louis for a portion of $300,000 in his hands, but
4,000 troops on steamers, he proceeded to Cairo with such a display that the impression was general that lie had 12,000. Although large bodies of Confederate troops in Kentucky and Missouri were gathered for the purpose of seizing Cairo and Bird's Point, Fremont was not molested in his mission, and Prentiss, at the former place, was amply strengthened. Pillow and Thompson and Hardee, who had advanced in that direction, fell back, and became very discreet. Fremont returned to St. Louis on Aug. 4, having accomplished his wishes and spread alarm among the Confederates. Polk, at Memphis, ordered Pillow to evacuate New Madrid, with his men and heavy guns, and hasten to Randolph and Fort Pillow, on the Tennessee shore. When news of the battle at Wilson's Creek, and the death of Lyon, reached St. Louis, the Confederates were jubilant. Fremont immediately proclaimed martial law, and appointed a provost-marshal. Some of the most active Confederates were arrested, and the publication o
e to a map, ou this short mountain chain are the head-waters of four great rivers of the continent,—namely, the Colorado, Columbia, Missouri, and Platte Rivers. It had been my design, after having ascended the mountains, to continue our route on the western side of the range, and, crossing through a pass at the northwestern end of the chain, about 30 miles from our present camp, return along the eastern slope across the heads of the Yellowstone River, and join on the line to our station of August 7, immediately at the foot of the ridge. In this way, I should be enabled to include the whole chain and its numerous waters in my survey; but various considerations induced me, very reluctantly, to abandon this plan. I was desirous to keep strictly within the scope of my instructions; and it would have required ten or fifteen additional days for the accomplishment of this object. Our animals had become very much worn out with the length of the journey; game was very scarce; and, though
to St. Louis in sullen sadness. Soon afterwards an elegant sword was presented to Fremont, inscribed, To the Pathfinder, by the men of the West. Ascent of Fremont's Peak. In the Journal of his first expedition (1842), Fremont gives a modest yet thrilling account of the ascent of the highest peak of the Rocky Mountains and of the planting of Old glory on the extreme summit. The altitude of this peak is given by Prof. F. V. Hayden as 13,790 feet. The Journal reads as follows: August 10. The air at sunrise is clear and pure, and the morning extremely cold, but beautiful. A lofty snow-peak of the mountain is glittering in the first rays of the sun, which has not yet reached us. The long mountain wall to the east, rising 2,000 feet abruptly from the plain, behind which we see the peaks, is still dark, and cuts clear against the glowing sky. A fog, just risen from the river, lies along the base of the mountain. A little before sunrise, the thermometer was at 35°, and at
which might chance to discover them in the interval of our absence. Fifteen of the best mules, with fourteen men, were selected for the mountain party. Our provisions consisted of dried meat for two days, with our little stock of coffee and some macaroni. In addition to the barometer and thermometer I took with me a sextant spy-glass, and we had, of course, our compasses. In charge of the camp I left Brenier, one of my most trustworthy men, who possessed the most determined courage. August 12. Early in the morning we left the camp, fifteen in number, well armed, of course, and mounted on our best mules. A pack animal carried our provisions, with a coffee-pot and kettle and three or four tin cups. Every man had a blanket strapped over his saddle, to serve for his bed, and the instruments were carried by turns on their backs. We entered directly on rough and rocky ground, and, just after crossing the ridge, had the good fortune to shoot an antelope. We heard the roar, and
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