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United States (United States) (search for this): entry holland-submarine-torpedo-boat
he investment of Santiago the world undoubtedly saw the last instance of a harbor of a civilized nation being closed by hostile war-ships—that is, unless the next war comes with unexpected suddenness. The six Holland boats building for the United States, though inadequate for general protection, would make a big hole in any blockading squadron that settled down in front of one of our great harbors. The squadron would have to face almost inevitable destruction, or put out to sea. A submarf submarine accidents were much more reliable 240 years ago than they have been for the last forty years, during which period there have been authentic newspaper reports of the loss of eightytwo lives in attempting submarine navigation in the United States. Fifty of these lives were not lost at all, and the other thirty-two, though lost in a boat designed to operate as a submarine, were all lost when, and apparently because, she was not so operating. Fulton, who went into submarine navigatio
perate as a submarine, were all lost when, and apparently because, she was not so operating. Fulton, who went into submarine navigation before he took up steamboats, ran against a solid stone wall of prejudice. He built two excellent boats in France, but all his perseverance could not overcome the fear men have of going down into an element that they invariably associate with drowning. So, though he had the active interest and good — will of the first Napoleon, Fulton had to drop the matter that they invariably associate with drowning. So, though he had the active interest and good — will of the first Napoleon, Fulton had to drop the matter. To a limited class at least, to the naval men of France and America, it has been demonstrated that the submarine is not a trap in which men are drowned like rats. The extension of this knowledge may be expected to be rapid. The commercial application of submarine navigation will follow almost immediately in the wake of this extensi
ats building for the United States, though inadequate for general protection, would make a big hole in any blockading squadron that settled down in front of one of our great harbors. The squadron would have to face almost inevitable destruction, or put out to sea. A submarine is now under construction which will start on a journey across the Atlantic, travelling entirely under her own power. She will go first to Bermuda, a distance of 676 miles, then to Fayal, 1,880 miles, and thence to Lisbon, 940 miles, or a total of 3.496 miles. If it were deemed advisable, the trip could just as easily be made direct, without making a call at any intermediate port. This boat will go on the surface almost exclusively. Her chief motive power will be a gasoline engine of 160 horse-power, that will drive her at the rate of 9 1/2 knots an hour. This engine will also generate the electric power that may be needed for submerged runs, and such work as may be deemed expedient in the harbors where
ed suddenness. The six Holland boats building for the United States, though inadequate for general protection, would make a big hole in any blockading squadron that settled down in front of one of our great harbors. The squadron would have to face almost inevitable destruction, or put out to sea. A submarine is now under construction which will start on a journey across the Atlantic, travelling entirely under her own power. She will go first to Bermuda, a distance of 676 miles, then to Fayal, 1,880 miles, and thence to Lisbon, 940 miles, or a total of 3.496 miles. If it were deemed advisable, the trip could just as easily be made direct, without making a call at any intermediate port. This boat will go on the surface almost exclusively. Her chief motive power will be a gasoline engine of 160 horse-power, that will drive her at the rate of 9 1/2 knots an hour. This engine will also generate the electric power that may be needed for submerged runs, and such work as may be dee
, unless the next war comes with unexpected suddenness. The six Holland boats building for the United States, though inadequate for general protection, would make a big hole in any blockading squadron that settled down in front of one of our great harbors. The squadron would have to face almost inevitable destruction, or put out to sea. A submarine is now under construction which will start on a journey across the Atlantic, travelling entirely under her own power. She will go first to Bermuda, a distance of 676 miles, then to Fayal, 1,880 miles, and thence to Lisbon, 940 miles, or a total of 3.496 miles. If it were deemed advisable, the trip could just as easily be made direct, without making a call at any intermediate port. This boat will go on the surface almost exclusively. Her chief motive power will be a gasoline engine of 160 horse-power, that will drive her at the rate of 9 1/2 knots an hour. This engine will also generate the electric power that may be needed for su
pting submarine navigation in the United States. Fifty of these lives were not lost at all, and the other thirty-two, though lost in a boat designed to operate as a submarine, were all lost when, and apparently because, she was not so operating. Fulton, who went into submarine navigation before he took up steamboats, ran against a solid stone wall of prejudice. He built two excellent boats in France, but all his perseverance could not overcome the fear men have of going down into an element that they invariably associate with drowning. So, though he had the active interest and good — will of the first Napoleon, Fulton had to drop the matter. To a limited class at least, to the naval men of France and America, it has been demonstrated that the submarine is not a trap in which men are drowned like rats. The extension of this knowledge may be expected to be rapid. The commercial application of submarine navigation will follow almost immediately in the wake of this extension
ll-defined limitations that surround travel under water, it is no difficult matter to forecast what the nature of such travel will be. For trans-Atlantic travel submarine boats will never be possible commercially. For short trips, however, the submarine offers commercial advantages that will render it a dangerous rival of the surface-sailing vessel, if, indeed, it does not drive the latter entirely out of the competition in particular waters. Take, for example, the trip across the English Channel. No other water journey causes an equal amount of suffering. The most hardened traveller becomes sea-sick there. On the submarine there will be no seasickness, because in a submerged boat there is absolutely no perceptible motion. There will be no smells to create nausea, for the boats will be propelled by electric power taken from storage batteries, which will be charged at either end. The offensive odor that causes so much discomfort in surface boats is due to the heated oil on th
at full height; power to dive to a depth of 20 feet within thirty seconds, the boat before diving running at full speed with steam-power, and with 3 feet of water over hull, and smoke-pipe up; with complete submergence and 3 feet of water over turret, the pilot to obtain a view with a camera-lucida in a tube projecting above the surface; a turret to rise 4 feet above the hull, with an armor cylinder of 8 inches thickness to protect the pilot's head; a complete double shell to extend The Holland submarine torpedo-boat. about three-quarters of the vessel's length from the stem; ability to stand the water pressure at a depth of 70 feet; automatic arrangements for preventing a too deep submergence; automatic compensation for weights consumed, and independent mechanism for correcting variations in trim due to shifting weights; mechanical means for steering a fixed course; air to be supplied for crew either chemically or by storage under pressure in tanks; apparatus to cause the vessel
Holland submarine torpedo-boat. John P. Holland devised a submarine boat which met with the requirements of the United States Navy Department. When submerged, the boat was propelled by electricity, and able to make 8 knots for six hours. Among the requirements were power to carry two tubes for automobile torpedoes; ability to reach a depth of 20 feet within one minute after being ordered to dive, the boat running light at full speed, and with smokepipe at full height; power to dive to a depth of 20 feet within thirty seconds, the boat before diving running at full speed with steam-power, and with 3 feet of water over hull, and smoke-pipe up; with complete submergence and 3 feet of water over turret, the pilot to obtain a view with a camera-lucida in a tube projecting above the surface; a turret to rise 4 feet above the hull, with an armor cylinder of 8 inches thickness to protect the pilot's head; a complete double shell to extend The Holland submarine torpedo-boat. about t
ime after she had blown up the Housatonic. These accidents are charged against submarine navigation, when the fact is that had the boat been used as intended, under water, instead of on the surface, she would not have lost a single life. Admiral Hichborn, chief constructor of the navy, went extensively into the question of fatal accidents in submarine navigation. He found there were eighty-three cases set down at various times. On investigation he found that fifty had never occurred at all such, was that of Day, an Englishman, who built and operated a submarine boat late in the seventeenth century. The second time she was submerged, it is reported that the hull was crushed by the weight of water. In a report on the subject, Admiral Hichborn wrote: If Day were really crushed in his boat, he has the unique distinction of being the only victim of the dangers of submarine navigation; but this distinction depends upon the supposition that reports of submarine accidents were mu
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