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, and by Dec. 10 the Confederates were all driven within their lines, and Savannah was completely beleaguered; but the only approaches to it were by five narrow causeways. They had broken communications, so that no supplies could be received in Savannah. Sherman sought to make the Ogeechee an avenue of supply, oceanward, for his army, and to communicate with the Union fleet outside. The latter was soon effected. Fort McAllister, near the mouth of the Ogeechee, was in the way, and, on the 13th, Slocum ordered General Hazen to carry it by assault. It was a strong, enclosed redoubt, garrisoned by 200 men. It was carried, and this was the brilliant ending of the march from Atlanta to the sea. It opened to Sherman's army a new base of supplies. Sherman communicated with the officers of the fleet, and, on Dec. 17, he summoned Hardee to surrender. Hardee refused. Perceiving the arrangements made to cut off his retreat to Charleston, Hardee secretly withdrew on the dark and stormy nig
s right was composed of the corps of Generals Osterhaus and Blair, and the left of the corps of Gen. J. C. Davis and A. S. Williams. General Kilpatrick commanded the cavalry, consisting of one division. Sherman's entire force numbered 60,000 infantry and artillery and 5,500 cavalry. On Nov. 11 Sherman cut the telegraph wires that connected Atlanta with Washington, and his army became an isolated column in the heart of an enemy's country. It began its march for the sea on the morning of the 14th, when the entire city of Atlanta—excepting its court-house, churches, and dwellings— was committed to the flames. The buildings in the heart of the city, covering 200 General Sherman moving out of Atlanta. Map showing country covered in Sherman's March to the sea. acres of ground, formed a great conflagration; and, while the fire was raging, the bands played, and the soldiers chanted the stirring air and words, John Brown's soul goes marching on! For thirty-six days that army moved
d this was the brilliant ending of the march from Atlanta to the sea. It opened to Sherman's army a new base of supplies. Sherman communicated with the officers of the fleet, and, on Dec. 17, he summoned Hardee to surrender. Hardee refused. Perceiving the arrangements made to cut off his retreat to Charleston, Hardee secretly withdrew on the dark and stormy night of Dec. 20, and, with 15,000 men, escaped to that city. The National army took possession of Savannah on Dec. 22, 1864. On the 26th Sherman wrote to President Lincoln: I beg to present to you, as a Christmas gift, the city of Savanah, with 150 heavy guns and plenty of ammunition, and also about 25,000 bales of cotton. On his march Sherman had lived generously off the country, which was abundantly filled with provisions. He appropriated to the use of the army 13,000 beeves, 160,000 bushels of corn, more than 5,000 tons of fodder, besides a large number of sheep, swine, fowls, and quantities of potatoes and rice. He fo
s sent by water to a point on the Charleston and Savannah Railway, where it seriously menaced Charleston. The left wing, under Slocum, accompanied by Kilpatrick's cav- General William Tecumseh Sherman Headquarters of General Sherman in Savannah. alry, was to have crossed the Savannah on a pontoon bridge at that city; but incessant rains had so flooded the swamps and raised the streams that the army was compelled to cross higher up, and did not effect the passage until the first week in February. Savannah and its dependencies were transferred to General Foster, then in command of the Department of the South, with instructions to co-operate with Sherman's inland movements by occupying, in succession, Charleston and other places. Sherman notified General Grant that it was his intention, after leaving Savannah, to undertake, at one stride, to make Goldsboro an open communication with the sea by the Newbern Railway. Feints of attacks on Charleston kept Hardee from interfering with S
Confederates from their position at Orangeburg and began destroying the railway there. On Feb. 18 they began a march directly to Columbia, the capital of South Carolina, driving the Confederates before them wherever they appeared. Sherman's march was so rapid that troops for the defence of the capital could not be gathered in time. He was in front of Columbia before any adequate force for its defence appeared. Beauregard was in command there, and had promised much, but did little. On Feb. 17 the Nationals entered Columbia; and on the same day Charleston, flanked, was evacuated by Hardee (see Charleston). The rear guard of the Confederates, under Wade Hampton, on retiring, set fire to cotton in the streets; and the high wind sent the burning fibre into the air, setting fire to the dwellings, and in the course of a few hours that beautiful city was in ruins (Columbia). Sherman, after destroying the arsenal at Columbia, left the ruined city and pressed on with his forces to Fayett
m interfering with Sherman's inland march. Wheeler had been putting obstructions in his pathway to Columbia: but the movements of the Nationals were so mysterious that it distracted the Confederates, who could not determine whether Sherman's objective was Charleston or Augusta. His invasion produced wide-spread alarm. Sherman's army steadily advanced in the face of every obstacle. They drove the Confederates from their position at Orangeburg and began destroying the railway there. On Feb. 18 they began a march directly to Columbia, the capital of South Carolina, driving the Confederates before them wherever they appeared. Sherman's march was so rapid that troops for the defence of the capital could not be gathered in time. He was in front of Columbia before any adequate force for its defence appeared. Beauregard was in command there, and had promised much, but did little. On Feb. 17 the Nationals entered Columbia; and on the same day Charleston, flanked, was evacuated by
pen at Millen. Kilpatrick and Wheeler had several skirmishes, but no severe battles. On Nov. 30, Sherman's whole army, excepting one corps, had passed the Ogeechee. This was a most skilful manoeuvre; and then, having destroyed the principal railways in Georgia over long distances, Sherman was prepared to make a final conquest of the State. Moving on seaward, the division of Hazen had a severe skirmish (Dec. 4) at Statesburg, south of the Ogeechee. General Sherman's headquarters during March to the sea. Attack on Fort McAllister. The Confederates were dispersed. On the same day Kilpatrick fought Wheeler on the railway between Millen and Augusta, drove him from his barricades through Waynesboro, and pushed him 8 miles, while a supporting column of Union infantry under Baird were tearing up the railway and destroying bridges. When Sherman reached Millen, the Union prisoners had been removed; and he pushed on, amid swamps and sands, with the city of Savannah, where Hardee w
by the (now) general-in-chief beyond those of any other division commander. General Sherman's management, as commander of troops in the attack on Chickasaw Bluff, last December, was admirable. Seeing the ground from the opposite side of the attack, I see the impossibility of making it successful. The conception of the attack on Arkansas Post was General Sherman's. His part of the execution no one denies was as good as it possibly could have been. His demonstration on Haines's Bluff, in April, to hold the enemy at Vicksburg while the army was securing a foothold east of the Mississippi; his rapid march to join the army afterwards; his management at Jackson, Miss., in the first attack; his almost unequalled march from Jackson to Bridgeport, and passage of that stream; his securing Walnut Hill, on May 18, and thus opening communication with our supplies—all attest his great merits as a soldier. The siege of Vicksburg, the last capture of Jackson, and the dispersion of Johnston's
convention of that State passed the ordinance of secession, Captain Sherman resigned; was made colonel of United States infantry in May, 1861; and commanded a brigade at the battle of Bull Run, having been made brigadier-general of volunteers in May. In October, 1861, he succeeded General Anderson in the command of the Department of Kentucky. The Secretary of War asked him how many men he should require. He General Sherman in the field. answered, Sixty thousand to drive the enemy from Keon of Grant's Army of the Tennessee, and performed signal service in the battle of Shiloh. To his individual efforts, said Grant, I am indebted for the success of that battle. There he was slightly wounded, and had three horses shot under him. In May he was made a major-general. From July to November, 1862, he commanded at Memphis; and throughout the campaign against Vicksburg (December, 1862, to July, 1863) his services were most conspicuous and valuable. How fully General Grant appreci
ed respectively by Generals Hardee, Hood, and Polk. This army then lay at Dalton, at the parting of the ways —one leading into east Tennessee and the other into west Tennessee. To strike that position in front was, at least, perilous; so Sherman began a series of successful flanking movements. When he flanked the Confederates at Dalton, they fell back to Resaca Station, on the Oostenaula River, on the line of the railway between Chattanooga and Atlanta. There a sharp battle was fought on May 15. Johnston took his next position at Allatoona Pass, and Sherman massed his troops at Dallas, westward of that post, where a severe battle was fought May 25. Johnston finally pressed on to Marietta and Atlanta, where, towards the middle of July, he was succeeded by Hood. The latter city was captured by Sherman, who entered it Sept. 2, 1864. Late in October Sherman prepared for a march through Georgia from Atlanta to Savannah. See Atlanta. When he resolved to march through the heart
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