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Venice (Italy) (search for this): chapter 1
ns. Its principal peculiarity consists in compactness and portability. See portable steam-engine. Aichs Met′al. An alloy of copper, zinc, and iron, used for guns. Patented in England, February 3, 1860, by Johann Aich, Imperial Arsenal, Venice. It is composed as follows: — Copper,60. Zinc,38.125 Iron,1.5 It resembles the Keir metal, English patent, December 10, 1779, which has, — Copper,100100 Zinc,75 or,80 Iron,1010 Also the sterro-metal of Rosthorn, Austria, 1861, re numerous. Herodotus refers to cloth made of it by the Egyptians. Its uses for paper, napkins, socks, drawers, handkerchiefs, are referred to by Varro, Strabo, and Pliny. Marco Polo mentions it, and Baptista Porta speaks of its being spun in Venice. Asbestus cerements and wrappings for the bodies of the dead previous to incremation were in common use with those whose circumstances permitted it. Shrouds of asbestus of the time of the Roman Emperors have been discovered, and are in the museu<
England (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 1
The tally system was also introduced into England at the Norman Conquest. This was not for calon. A free-reed instrument introduced into England from Germany about 1828. The exterior form od mature. An apparatus was patented by Thom, England, for applying air loaded with moisture of a g F. W. Gerhard obtained a patent in 1856, in England, for an improved means of obtaining aluminiumalloyed with aluminium. Lancaster's (1858, England) gun-metal : copper, 90; aluminium, 100. Aates patent, made application for a patent in England for the same invention. The extraction of siege train.1477 Brass cannon first cast in England.1521 Iron cannon first cast in England.1547 oves are now constructed on that principle in England and in the United States. At what time the1834, Pinkus, an American citizen residing in England, took out a patent for an apparatus which he ype of its class. The form of auger which in England is called the American pattern was patented b[48 more...]
Kitchener (Canada) (search for this): chapter 1
row of tufts is then knotted in, the selection of colors being such as to carry on the pattern. To guide the weaver as to the position of the colors, a paper design constantly hangs before him. The linen chain and weft are entirely concealed. Ayr stone. A Scotch stone, called Water of Ayr, used as a whetstone and in surfacing metals previous to polishing. Az′i-muth Cir′cle. The azimuth circle, as an astronomical instrument, is used for determining the azimuths of stars. The azimuAyr, used as a whetstone and in surfacing metals previous to polishing. Az′i-muth Cir′cle. The azimuth circle, as an astronomical instrument, is used for determining the azimuths of stars. The azimuth is an arc of the horizon intercepted between the meridian of the place of the observation and the vertical circle passing through the object. The cut (Fig. 511) illustrates an equatorial dial, according to Dr. Hooker probably a Kranti-urit, or azimuth circle, in the observatory at Benares, built by Jey-Sing, Rajah of Jayanagar, upwards of 200 years ago. Dr. Hooker describes the astronomer-royal at the time of his visit as a pitiful object, half naked, with a large sore on his stomac
North Yarmouth (Maine, United States) (search for this): chapter 1
of permitting them to be cast into the scrap-heap, is one of the most beautiful triumphs of modern mechanism. It has proved itself capable of adaptation to large as well as small machinery, and is now applied to the locomotives of the Pennsylvania Central Railroad, whose parts are made interchangeable. The first notice in this country of this excellent mode of manufacturing a number of articles designed to be exactly similar, is the breech-loading rifle of John H. Hall, of North Yarmouth, Massachusetts, patented May 21, 1811, and which he refers to in the following terms in a letter to the War Department: Only one point now remains to bring the rifles to the utmost perfection, which I shall attempt if the government contracts with me for the guns to any considerable amount, namely, to make every similar part of every gun so much alike that it will suit every gun, so that if 1,000 guns are taken apart and the limbs thrown promiscuously together in one heap, they may be taken pro
Geneva, N. Y. (New York, United States) (search for this): chapter 1
ted by the end of a screw which is either turned directly by hand, or, when vertical and inclosed within the burner, is turned by a lever projecting through a slot therein. Argand gas-burner. Argand lamp. Invented by Argand, a native of Geneva, about the year 1784. It consists of two concentric cylindrical tubes between which is fitted the annular wick used in this peculiar burner. The annulus inclosing the wick is closed at the bottom, and communicates, by a pipe, with the oil reser against Constantinople.1453 Louis XI. of France has twelve cannon cast to throw metallic shot, for use as a siege train.1477 Brass cannon first cast in England.1521 Iron cannon first cast in England.1547 Howitzers introduced.1697 Maritz of Geneva introduces the method of casting guns solid and boring them out.1749 Carronades invented by General Melville.1779 For continuation of the subject and details, see ordnance; mortars; projectiles; weapons, etc. In European services, artille
Lower California (Mexico) (search for this): chapter 1
ns which have been published for building with adobes, it is recommended that they should be guarded, by some material impervious to water, from absorbing moisture from the ground, and also that the roof should be made to project not less than two feet in order to shed the water and prevent its running down the walls. These directions seem to indicate the weak point, and the experiences derived from the dry plains of Asia and Africa, and the elevated arid regions of Northern Mexico and Lower California, do not apply so well to our more humid climate. The mold for making adobes resembles the ordinary brick-mold in having four sides and having handles at the ends, but no top or bottom. It is much larger, however, and sometimes a pair are placed in a single frame. It is placed in position on the drying-ground, filled with clay, and when the top is smoothed by a striker, the mold is carefully raised, leaving the adobe to dry for a few days, when it is turned to expose the other side.
Tadmor (Pennsylvania, United States) (search for this): chapter 1
om the consideration of the narrow limits of a single country to the knowledge of the magnitude of the entire globe. A more ancient Chaldean measurement is mentioned, the count being obtained in camels' paces, 4,000 paces to the mile, 33 1/2 miles to half a degree, — circumference of the earth, 24,000 miles. See Comptes Readus, T. XXIII. p. 851, 1846. Another measurement of a degree of the meridian was made under the orders of the Khalif Al-Mamun in the great plain of Sinds-char, between Tadmor and Rakka, by observers whose names have been preserved to us by Eba Junis, tenth century. Each sage went for what he wanted to the proper mart of science: for not only Pythagoras studied astronomy at Heliopolis, where it was professed with the greatest eclat; but Eudoxus got his geometry at Memphis, whose priests were the most profound mathematicians; and Solon was instructed in civil wisdom at Sais, whose patron deity being Minerva (as we are told by Herodotus and Strabo), shows politie
n wells were made in ancient times in the Oasis of El-Bacharich, and were described by Olympiodorus, a native of Thebes, who lived in the fifth century A. D. Their depth is said to be from 200 to 500 cubits, and the water issues at the surface. They have been noticed by Arago. A Frenchman has reopened several of those which had become stopped. The reopened wells are from 360 to 480 feet deep. The Moniteur Algerien gives an interesting report on the newly bored Artesian wells in the Sahara Desert, in the province of Constantine. The first well was bored in the Oasis of Oued-Rir, near Tamerna, by a detachment of the Foreign Legion, conducted by the engineer, M. Jus. The works were begun in May, 1856, and, on the 19th of June, a quantity of water, of 1,060 gallons per minute, and of a temperature of 79° Fah. rushed forth from the bowels of the earth. The joy of the natives was unbounded; the news of the event spread towards the south with unexampled rapidity. People came from l
Seville (Spain) (search for this): chapter 1
lary Sphere.Micrometer. Artificial Horizon.Mural Circle. Astrolabe.Optical Instruments. Astrometer.Orbit-Sweeper. Astroscope.Orrery. Azimuth Circle.Planetarium. Azimuth Dial.Reflecting Circle. Back-staff.Refraction Circle. Collimator.Telescope. Comet-Seeker.Tellurian. Compass.Transit. Cosmolabe.Universal Instrument. Dipleidoscope.Zenith Sector. Dip Sector.Zenith Tube. Equatorial Telescope. In Europe, the Arabs were the first to build observatories; the Giralda, or Tower of Seville, was erected under the superintendence of Geber the mathematician, about A. D. 1196, for that purpose. After the expulsion of the Moors it was turned into a belfry, the Spaniards not knowing what else to do with it. The same people mistook the vertical gnomons of Quito — beneath the line — for idols, and upset them, crossing themselves devoutly. Of the obelisks of Egypt, the round towers of Ireland, and the gnomons of Quito, the last is the least distinctly phallic. Native Observatory
Amsterdam (Netherlands) (search for this): chapter 1
ch the bladdervalve lay, offering but slight cohesive opposition to the raising of the valve as the piston ascended and the air from the receiver pressed upward against it. Rotary air pump. to prevent lodgment of the air in the lower part of the barrel, he removed the external pressure from the piston-valve, by making the piston move through a collar of leather, and forced the air out by a valve applied to the plate at the top of the barrel, which opened outwardly. Cuthbertson of Amsterdam introduced the improvement of mechanically opening an escape for the air without depending upon its elastic force to open the valve leading to the cylinders. air force-pumps are used for the supply of aircarbureting machines. A common form of these consists of what is called a meter-wheel, from its resemblance to the measuring-wheel of a gas-meter. Fig. 113. in the illustration the buckets M are curved, and gather in the air of the chamber a. as the wheel rotates the air is discharged
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