hide Sorting

You can sort these results in two ways:

By entity (current method)
Chronological order for dates, alphabetical order for places and people.
By position
As the entities appear in the document.

You are currently sorting in ascending order. Sort in descending order.

hide Most Frequent Entities

The entities that appear most frequently in this document are shown below.

Entity Max. Freq Min. Freq
Europe 998 0 Browse Search
United States (United States) 994 0 Browse Search
England (United Kingdom) 766 0 Browse Search
France (France) 692 0 Browse Search
China (China) 602 0 Browse Search
London (United Kingdom) 494 0 Browse Search
Early English 488 0 Browse Search
Department de Ville de Paris (France) 458 0 Browse Search
James Watt 343 1 Browse Search
Herodotus 256 0 Browse Search
View all entities in this document...

Browsing named entities in a specific section of Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight). Search the whole document.

Found 2,347 total hits in 950 results.

1 2 3 4 5 6 ...
s a native of Spain, which country was celebrated for its wool in the time of Pliny. The greater number of the sheep of Spain belong to the mesta, or merino corporation, which has about 5,000,000 sheep in flocks of 10,000 each. Each flock has an officer, 50 shepherds, and 50 dogs. In summer, the sheep feed upon the elevated lands of Biscay, Navarre, and Arragon, and toward winter are driven southward to the fertile plains of New Castile, Andalusia, and Estramadura. The lambs come in January, and shearing commences the 1st of May, being carried on in houses where the flocks of sheep are folded on their northern march. 125 men shear 1,000 ewes per day, 50 weathers per man being considered a day's work. The ewes yield from 4 to 5 pounds of wool, the weathers from 7 to 8. The wool of each sheep is sorted into four varieties. The carcass is but little esteemed. The institution of the mesta dates from the time of the plague in 1350, when whole provinces were nearly depopula
s celebrated for its wool in the time of Pliny. The greater number of the sheep of Spain belong to the mesta, or merino corporation, which has about 5,000,000 sheep in flocks of 10,000 each. Each flock has an officer, 50 shepherds, and 50 dogs. In summer, the sheep feed upon the elevated lands of Biscay, Navarre, and Arragon, and toward winter are driven southward to the fertile plains of New Castile, Andalusia, and Estramadura. The lambs come in January, and shearing commences the 1st of May, being carried on in houses where the flocks of sheep are folded on their northern march. 125 men shear 1,000 ewes per day, 50 weathers per man being considered a day's work. The ewes yield from 4 to 5 pounds of wool, the weathers from 7 to 8. The wool of each sheep is sorted into four varieties. The carcass is but little esteemed. The institution of the mesta dates from the time of the plague in 1350, when whole provinces were nearly depopulated and vast estates became ownerless.
es that Necho commanded the Phoenicians to make their return to Egypt by the pillars of Hercules. Strabo, while discrediting the accounts of circumnavigations previously said to have been accomplished, does not deny the possibility of the circumnavigation, but affirms that from the east to the west there was but little wanting to its completion. Bartholomew Diaz reached and actually doubled the Cape of Good Hope in May, 1487, but, deterred by the storms, put back and reached Portugal in December of the same year, so that it was reserved for Vasco da Gama to first pass beyond the region of storms which surrounds the Cape and enter upon the waters, usually more placid, of the great Indian Ocean. Humboldt says: I have shown elsewhere how a knowledge of the period at which Vespucci was named Piloto Mayor would alone be sufficient to refute the accusation first brought against him in 1533 by the astronomer Schoner of Nuremberg, of having astutely inserted the words Terra di Ame
substantially similar and used for digging and grubbing, has been in use in Egypt and Palestine for nearly 4,000 years, as we know, and probably much longer. The Egyptian hoe of the time of the Pharaohs was a large wooden implement, and answered for mattock, spade, and hoe. It had a single head, like the surculus simplex of Palladius, in contradistinction to the bicornis, or two-bladed tool, which resembled our pick. See hoe. They had a file for the mattocks. — 1 Samuel, XIII. 21 (1093 B. C.). By reference to Isaiah VII. 25, it appears that the mattock was relied upon for grubbing out briers and thorns as at present, and the pronged hoes of the Greeks had a similar duty in addition to their ordinary use in preparing the ground for seed. Mat′tress. A padded bed, or one stuffed and quilted or tied, so as to keep the stuffing to a general thickness. The filling is hair, moss, sponge, cotton, husk, straw, excelsior (shredded wood), etc. An elastic bed-bottom of coiled or
is required to produce the requisite polish. Works in wood and metal or in pearl, ivory, or tortoise-shell and metals require the use of the file, followed by sand or emery-paper. (See buhl ; parquetry.) This species of ornamentation was much in vogue during the past century, but is now comparatively rare. The art of inlaying different pieces of wood to resemble mosaic is of great antiquity. It was practiced in Egypt at a remote period, and is shown in very successful condition about 1355 B. C. See the chairs, boxes, mummy-cases, and furniture of Rameses III. in the Description of Egypt, by the French savans, about 1812. The book is in the Congressional Library. The art was very popular in India in times of whose dates we can only guess. The Chinese, also, were early in the field, and excelled in this as they did and do in whatever requires patient toil and persistent, careful manipulation. The Egyptian antiquities referred to embrace many different colored woods and met
made by the Chaldeans, by Eratosthenes, by Al Maimon, by Pire, and more lately by the French, English, Germans, and others; in Peru, Lapland, British India, and elsewhere. (See armil ; armillary-sphere ; astronomical instruments ; odometer.) We regard Eratosthenes with profound respect as the author of the science of geography, and the name thereof. The extent of each zone he determined by the length of the solstitial day, and called them elimates. The map of the world by Hipparchus (150 B. C.) is founded on the discoveries of Eratosthenes, and is the first recorded attempt to assign geographical positions by longitudes and latitudes, obtained, the former from lunar eclipses, and the latter from lengths of the shadow measured by the gnomon. In Strabo's time, about the Christian era, it was customary to draw a meridian and parallel for each important place whose position was considered as determined. Ptolemy, about A. D. 150, simplified the method, and probably introduced the
nclude them in Asia. The eastern border of the land, abutting upon Libya, was for a time adopted. Afterwards the Tanais and the Nile were the limits of Asia, one half of Egypt being ascribed to Africa. Herodotus considered it absurd to divide the country of one people between two continents. Ptolemy, the geographer, defined the Red Sea and the Isthmus of Suez as the boundary between the continents. Next is the map of the world according to Eratosthenes and Strabo. Eratosthenes (276-196 B. C.) of Alexandria was the discoverer of the obliquity of the ecliptic, and was the founder of geodesy. He determined the circumference of the earth by measuring a degree of the meridian. Measurements of an are of the meridian have been made by the Chaldeans, by Eratosthenes, by Al Maimon, by Pire, and more lately by the French, English, Germans, and others; in Peru, Lapland, British India, and elsewhere. (See armil ; armillary-sphere ; astronomical instruments ; odometer.) We regard Eratos
ich partook of the character of rafts, were floated down the river, carrying produce, and were not returned up stream. One mast and one sail, the latter depending from a yard, is the general feature, though a plurality of masts was not uncommon, especially with large vessels, such as the galley built by Archimedes for Hiero of Syracuse. It had 3 decks, towers on the bulwarks, stables, libraries, baths, fish-ponds, a crew of 600 men, and a main-mast that came from England. This was about 240 B. C. (See ship.) Syracuse was captured by Marcellus 212, and Archimedes slain. The mast is presumed to have been brought by the Phoenician or Carthaginian navigators from England, as those maritime nations were yet in existence. Poor Tyre had been desolated by Alexander 100 years before, but the people dispersed around the Mediterranean were yet active, and Carthage had not fallen before her imperial rival, remorseless Rome. In the time of Isaiah the masts were strengthened with shrouds fr
rms; resembling a tress of hair, a hawk's head, a column, a lotus scepter, or the goddess Athor. Several specimens may be seen in Abbott's collection in the possession of the New York Historical Society. The mirror with a handle is emblematical of Venus, and is represented on the stones in the ruins of Al Hadhr on the Tigris, the Atra of Ammianus Marcellinus. Silver mirrors were introduced by Praxiteles, 328 B. C. A famous mirror of antiquity was that placed by Ptolemy Euergetes (247 B. C.) on the summit of the Pharos of Alexandria. The clearness with which distant objects were depicted caused observers to speak of it in exalted terms beyond any reasonable belief. Abulfeda, the geographer, who wrote 1,000 years subsequently, states that it was made of Chinese iron, which Buffon supposes was steel, but was more probably one of the white alloys for which China was and is so famous. Probably nearly allied to speculum-metal. The ancients knew, — 1. That the rays of ligh
n the cast mark the longitudinal extent; back of Asia Minor is a greater Asia, which extends westward to the Nile. In the world of Herodotus, the Caspian was changed from an indentation in the land to a lake. Asia extends to the Atlantic; Libya is a subdivision. Aristogoras, the tyrant of Miletus, showed to King Cleomenes of Sparta a bronze tablet, on which the whole circuit of the earth was engraved, with its seas and rivers. — Herodotus, V. 49. In the geography of Democritus, 300 B. C., Europa, Asia, and Libya are acknowledged divisions. In the maps cited by Herodotus and other geographers of his time, the grand division now known as Africa was called Libya. The term Europe is from a Semitic word Ereb, the west, setting, darkness, etc. Asia signifies the opposite, — the east, rising, etc. The origin of the term Libya is lost in obscurity. The same, except as to period, may be said of the Latin word Africa. Its derivation was a mystery 2,300 years ago. For my par
1 2 3 4 5 6 ...