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Chelsea hospital (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 2
and shoe making business, more particularly since the introduction of pegs, which are said to have been invented by Joseph Walker, of Hopkinton, Mass., about the year 1818, has become a very extensive and important branch of manufacture, machinery being employed in nearly all the operations connected with the business. The first application of machinery in shoemaking is due to the celebrated Brunel, who devised a series of machines, which were operated by invalid soldiers belonging to Chelsea Hospital. The shoe passed through a number of hands before being finished; the operation which each man had to perform was so simple that it is said that the manipulation could be learned in half an hour. The sole was secured to the upper by nails. These machines, being employed solely for the manufacture of army shoes, appear to have fallen into disuse at the close of the war, and were never introduced into private establishments, the style of work probably not being suited to the demands of
Bombay (Maharashtra, India) (search for this): chapter 2
tion. i is a metallic disk with radial slots and corresponding numbers. The strap is so rove through the slots as to give the required indication. Bag′ga-la. (Nautical.) A two-masted Arabian vessel, frequenting the Indian Ocean. A dhow. The capacity is from 200 to 250 tons. Bag′ging. (Fabric.) 1. A coarse fabric made of old ropes, hemp, etc., for covering cotton-bales. 2. The gunny-cloth of India is made from jute. In Bengal, from one or two species of Corchorus; in Bombay and Madras, from the Crotalaria juncea. Bag-hold′er. A contrivance to hold up a bag with the mouth open ready for filling. There are many forms, — some adapted for large grain-bags, others of a smaller size for flour, seeds; still smaller, for ordinary groceries and counter use. a has a platform on which the sack stands, and its weight spreads the horns within and distends the mouth of the sack. b has a holder adjustable as to hight, and a hopper to which the mouth of the
Cornwall (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 2
, which is made by the union of copper and tin, while brass consists of copper and zinc. Hiram procured his tin in Cornwall, England. Herodotus called Britain the Cassiterides, or Tin Islands, 450 B. C. Calamine was known in early times, and the Tprobable that some of the ancient alloys which we read of as brass were really bronze. The Phoenicians brought tin from Cornwall 1100 B. C., before the building of Solomon's Temple. See brass. Tarshish was thy merchant [Tyre]; with silver, iron, tin, and lead they traded in thy fairs. The tin of Cornwall, and also probably that from the peninsula of Malacca, was mixed with the copper of the Wady Maghara to form the Egyptian, Phoenician, and Assyrian bronzes. Dr. Wilson (Prehistoric Man may be called buddles. The rockers, long-toms, and sluices act in this manner. The buddle represented is used in Cornwall, England. The ore is spread over an inclined board, and a divided stream of water directed upon it, so as to gradually ca
Pawtucket (Rhode Island, United States) (search for this): chapter 2
he ties. It is seen in the improved Penrhyn rail, 1805; also in Stephenson and Losh's Patent, 1816. Bel′ly-roll. (Agriculture.) A roller with a protuberant midlength, to roll the sloping sides of adjacent lands or ridges. Belt. 1. (Machinery.) A strap or flexible band to communicate motion from one wheel, drum, or roller, to another. Belts are made of leather, gutta percha, caoutchoue, wire, woven fabric, and other materials. Two leathern belts have lately been made in Pawtucket, composed of two thicknesses of leather firmly cemented together, without a stitch, rivet, or peg in either of them, and are half an inch thick. The larger of the two was made from 54 large ox-hides, is 136 feet long, 48 inches wide, and weighs 1,000 pounds. The other is 87 feet long, 36 inches wide, and weighs 475 pounds. The ratio of friction to pressure for belts over wood drums is, for leathern belts, when worn, .47; when new, .5; and when over turned cast-iron pulleys, .24 and .27
Sumatra (Indonesia) (search for this): chapter 2
reduced to powder. Barkome-ter. A hydrometer so graduated as to determine the strength of ooze according to a given scale of proportions, water being zero. Bark Paper. Throughout Southeastern Asia and Oceanica the Broussonesia papyrifera, or paper mulberry, is a common tree, and its bark is capable, by soaking and beating, of assuming the appearance of fine linen. It may be bleached, dyed, and printed, and is a common material for dress in the islands of Oceanica. In Java and Sumatra it is the common material for writing upon. When solidified and burnished, it resembles parchment. Manuscripts in European museums attest its quality. The same bark made into a pulp is used in China and Japan for making paper. The processes adopted with bamboo and the mulberry-bark are substantially similar after the reduction of the raw material into a pulpy condition. The Chinese processes are as follows: — The paper-stuff being rinsed with water alone, or with water in which ri
Keir (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 2
is used in grain-elevators. See bucket. Also in Carburetors. Bucket-wheel. Buck′ing. 1. (Cotton-manufacture.) Soaking cloth in lye, as a part of the process of bleaching, alternating with crofting, or exposing on the grass to air and light. See bucking-Kier. 2. (Mining.) Breaking up the ore by hammers. The tool is called the bucking-iron, and the bench is the bucking-plate. Buck′ing-i′ron. (Mining.) The miner's hammer, used in breaking up masses of ore. Bucking-Keir. Buck′ing-keir. (Cotton-manufacture.) Linen or cotton cloth is cleansed of the dirt and grease contracted in spinning and weaving, by boiling it with lime in a pan which is heated below. The goods rest on a false bottom, and the pressure of the steam evolved raises the water in the central column and ejects it from the edge of the circular cap in a stream upon the upper surface of the goods, through which it filters, to be again discharged as before. Buck′ing-plate.
Oriental (Oklahoma, United States) (search for this): chapter 2
or place where such conveniences are provided. 3. A tank containing a liquid for galvanic or electro-metallurgic purposes. 4. A vessel containing a fluid metal or heated composition, as a lead-bath or sand-bath. Baths were long used in Oriental countries, and traveled by the route of Egypt to Greece. Homer mentions the use of the bath as an old custom. From Greece they reached Rome, imported, as it is said, by Agrippa. The thermae (hot baths) were very splendid, and adorned for a peterm including the block and the rope rove through it, for hoisting or obtaining a purchase. See tackle. Block-book. (Printing.) A book whose pages are impressions from engraved blocks, each of which formed a page. This was a very old Oriental invention, and did not differ especially from the calicoprinting of China, India, Arabia, and Egypt, the books and placards of China, and the printed playing-cards commonly used in Europe many years before Coster, Guttenberg, and Faust. The g
Notre Dame (Indiana, United States) (search for this): chapter 2
of some of the largest bells in the world are stated to be as follows: — Weight.Diameter.Thickness. Pounds.Ft. In.Inches. Moscow (Kremlin), Cast in 155336,000 Cast in 1654288,000 Fell in 1703. Recast in 1733432,00021.23 Broken in 1737. Moscow (St. Ivan's)127,830 Burmah (Amarapoora)260,000 Pekin130,000 Novogorod62,000 Vienna (1711)40,2009.8 Olmutz40,000 Rouen40,000 Sens34,0008.6 Erfurth30,800 Westminster ( Big Ben, 1858)30,324 London (Houses of Parliament)30,000 Paris (Notre Dame, 1680)28,6728.67 1/2 Montreal (1847)28,5608.68 1/4 Cologne25,000 New York (City Hall)23,0008.6 1/2 to 7 New York (Fire-alarm, 33d Street)21,612 York ( Great Peter, 1845)10 3/4 tons.8.3 Weight.Diameter.Thickness. Pounds.Ft. In.Inches. Bruges23,000 Rome (St. Peters, 1680)18,600 Oxford ( Great Tom, 1680)18,0007.16 1/8 Antwerp16,000 Exeter (1675)5 1/2 tons.6.35 Lincoln ( Great Tom, 1834)5 1/2 tons.6.86 London (St. Paul's, 1709)11,4706.7 Fig. 636 represe
Coburg (Bavaria, Germany) (search for this): chapter 2
he edges. The workman seats himself on the ground, and, placing the machine between his legs, grasps the ends of the bags, and by alternately raising each with the mouth open and pushing it into the calabash when closed, the contained air is forced into the tubes and a continuous blast maintained. Wooden bellows were known in Germany in the middle of the sixteenth century, but it is not certain by whom they were invented. Lobsinger of Nuremberg (1550), and Schelhorn of Schmalebuche, in Coburg (1630), are cited as having introduced them. They are described in a work by Reyner, professor at Kiel, 1669, as being pneumatic chests, and as consisting essentially of a lid moving in a closely fitting box. In another form we find that two boxes were used, one fitting closely within the other, and the two, being perhaps quadrantal segments of cylinders, were hinged together so that the movable one vibrated on the common axis. Forge-bellows. Old Roman lump. The ordinary bellows
Glasgow (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 2
he workmen and the texture of the goods. Dr. Henry, of Manchester, substituted lime for potash, the goods being passed through a cream of lime and then exposed to chlorine. This formed a chloride of lime on the cloth. In 1798, Tennant, of Glasgow, adopted a saturated solution of chloride of lime, and subsequently impregnated dry lime with the gas, making bleaching powder. Bleaching, of cotton goods especially, is conducted on a systematic large scale, and includes singeing and washingg machines. The fan-blower is believed to have been invented by Teral, 1729. The water-bellows by Horn blower. Blowing-machines were erected by Smeaton at the Carron Iron Works, 1760. The hot-air blast was invented by James Neilson, of Glasgow, and patented in 1828. Wooden bellows, in which one open-ended box is made to slip within another, with valves for the induction and eduction of air, were used at Nuremberg, 1550. They were used in the next century for smelting, blacksmithin
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