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Cherbourg (France) (search for this): chapter 20
resistance over the charge of powder; if it could be made as strong as the rock itself, it would be perfection. a. The different materials employed for tamping are: — The chips and dust of the quarry itself. This is what is most commonly used, unless there be stone in it that strikes fire. b. Dry sand poured in loose, or stirred up as it is poured in, to make it more compact. General Burgoyne cites the favorable notice of sand in this connection, in the memoir of the works at Cherbourg, and also by a writer in the Journal of the Franklin Institute. He also cites the experience of General Pasley, of the English Engineers, who condemns sand as utterly unfit. An extended series of experiments were made in the granite of Dalkey, Kingstown Harbor, Ireland, in which sands of various qualities and fineness were tried, as against the baked clay. The results of the experiments were all unfavorable to the sand. c. Clay, well dried, either by exposure to the sun or by a f
America (Illinois, United States) (search for this): chapter 20
when the circuit is completed. These experiments are said to prove that comparatively large charges cannot be exploded without compromising other charges within their effec- tive area. The question remains to be decided whether it will be more practically advantageous to employ comparatively small torpedoes placed closely together, or those of larger size placed at greater intervals apart. The Ericsson pneumatic torpedo. Another English writer remarks that during the civil war in America, the Federal fleet was in no instance successful in passing a well-arranged system of fortifications where torpedoes were used, unless the forts were first reduced from the land: and in no instance did the navy fail to accomplish its object where torpedoes were not used. As an instance of the fallibility of torpedoes, it was found after the capture of Charleston that the Ironsides, the most powerful vessel in the Federal fleet, had lain for three months over a torpedo containing 3,000 po
Hong Kong (China) (search for this): chapter 20
ea to Iviza430 1871Majorca to Minorca3593 1871Villa Real to Gibraltar15584 1871Marseilles, France, to Algiers, Africa4471,625 1871Singapore to Saigon, Cochin China62060 Date.FromLength in Miles.Greatest Depth in Fathoms. 1871Saigon to Hong Kong975630 1871Hong Kong to Shanghai1,10042 1871Shanghai, China, to Nagasaki, Japan1,200135 1871Nagasaki to Vladivostock, Siberia80 1871Rhodes to Marmarice22 1871Latakia to Cyprus86 1871Samos to Scala Nuova1182 1871Myteleni to Aivali1333 187Hong Kong to Shanghai1,10042 1871Shanghai, China, to Nagasaki, Japan1,200135 1871Nagasaki to Vladivostock, Siberia80 1871Rhodes to Marmarice22 1871Latakia to Cyprus86 1871Samos to Scala Nuova1182 1871Myteleni to Aivali1333 1871Khania to Retimo32200 1871Retimo to Khandia41152 1871Khandia to Rhodes201600 1871Khios to Chesmeh633 1871Zante to Corfu150 1871Zante to Cephalonia18203 1871Lowestoft, England, to Greitseil, Germany22323 1871Anjer, Java, to Telok Betong, Sumatra5550 1871Banjoewangie, Java, to Port Darwin, Australia1,0821,580 1871St. Thomas to St. Kitts1331,170 1871St. Kitts to Antigua90130 1871Antigua to Demerara, connecting the West India Windward Islands1,028 1871Porto Rico to Jamaica582 1872Liza
Hermoupolis (Greece) (search for this): chapter 20
frica50800 1855*Cape Ray, Newfoundland, to Cape North, Cape Breton74360 1855*Sardinia to Africa1601,500 1855*Varna, Turkey, to Balaclava, Crimea310300 1855*Eupatoria, Crimea, to Balaclava, Crimea6069 1855*Varna, Turkey, to Kilia, Roumania17930 1855*Italy to Sicily527 1855*England to Holland12323 1855*England to Holland11923 1856*Cape Ray, Newfoundland, to Cape North, Cape Breton85300 1856Prince Edward Island to New Brunswick1214 1856*Crete to Alexandria, Egypt3501,350 1856Crete to Syra1701,020 1856St. Petersburg to Cronstadt, Russia1010 1856Across Amazon105 1857*Sardinia to Bona, Africa1501,500 1857*Sardinia to Malta5001,000 1857*Corfu to Malta5001,000 1857*Portland, England, to Alderney6960 1857*Alderney to Guernsey1744 1857*Guernsey to Jersey1560 1857Ceylon to Hindostan3045 1857Ceylon to Hindostan3040 1858*Italy to Sicily840 1858England to Holland12927 1858*England to Emden, Germany28028 1858*Ireland to Newfoundland2,0362,400 1858*Turkey to Smyrna via Archi
Paraguay (Paraguay) (search for this): chapter 20
habitants. A German authority, Von Bibra, in his Preface to Die narkotischen Genuss-Mittel und der Mensch (Man and the Use of Narcotics), assumes the following: Coffee leaves, in the form of infusions, are used by 2,000,000 of human beings; Paraguay tea is consumed by 10,000,000; coca by as many; betel is chewed by 100,000,000; chicory, either pure or mixed with coffee, by 40,000,000; cacao, either as chocolate or in some other form, by 50,000,000; 300,000,000 eat or smoke hashish; 400,000,water. Fine-cut tobacco-machine. In the city of Mexico, tobacco-pipes of various forms and grotesque shapes are dug up from time to time. The mound-builders were inveterate smokers. — Squier; Davis. c. When the Spaniards landed in Paraguay, in 1503, the chewing natives spurted the juice toward them. Pizarro found tobacco-chewers in Peru. Masticatories were used anciently in Europe. Plutarch says that the chewing of mallows is very wholesome, and the stalk of asphodel very l
Ohio (United States) (search for this): chapter 20
0 1874Valentia to Newfoundland1,900 United States vessels have lately been employed in taking soundings for the Pacific cable. When this line of telegraph is laid, its length between the terminal points, namely, San Francisco and Yokohama, will be 5,573 nautical miles. The cable will, however, be divided into three sections, — from San Francisco to Honolulu, 2,093 miles; from Honolulu to Midway Island, 1,220; and from Midway Island to Yokohama, 2,260 miles. a, Fig. 6243, is the Ohio River cable. It is composed of an interior wire of No. 10 Swedish iron, surrounded by three coats of gutta-percha and three of Osnaburg, the whole inclosed in No. 10 longitudinal wires, and lashed with one of similar size. b is the Hudson River cable. It has three No. 10 conducting wires, each insulated by a gutta-percha covering inclosed in the same material, and is wrapped with tarred yarn. c is an improvement on this, the wires being separated by solid gutta-percha incorporated in one
Belem (Para, Brazil) (search for this): chapter 20
to Demerara, connecting the West India Windward Islands1,028 1871Porto Rico to Jamaica582 1872Lizard, England, to Bilbao, Spain460 1872British Columbia to Vancouver Island.18 1873Falmouth to Lisbon850 1873Caithness to Orkney8 1873Valentia to Newfoundland1,900 1873Key West to Havana125 1873Placentia, Newfoundland, to Sydney, Cape Breton300 1873Heligoland to Cuxhaven, Germany40 1873England to Denmark350 1873France to Denmark450 1873Denmark to Sweden12 1873Pernambuco, Brazil, to Para, Brazil1,080 1873Alexandria, Egypt, to Crete390 1873Candia to Zante240 1873Zante to Otranto, Italy190 1873Alexandria, Egypt, to Brindisi, Italy930 1874Lisbon to Madeira633 1874Madeira to St. Vincent, Cape de Verd Islands1,260 1874St. Vincent to Pernambuco, Brazil1,953 1874Jamaica to Colon, South America660 1874Pernambuco, Brazil, to Bahia, Brazil450 1874Bahia, Brazil, to Rio Janeiro1,240 1874Italy to Sicily7 1874Jamaica to Porto Rico582 1874Rio Janeiro to Rio Grande do Sul840 1874Ry
Philippines (Philippines) (search for this): chapter 20
mp, flax, and silk. Lace barkLagetta linteariaJamaicaA bark resembling fine lace; made into collars, sleeves, purses, etc. Lime bastTilia europaeaEuropeAffords the material of Russia matting, etc. Common Name.Botanical Name of the Genus and Species of the Plant by which the Fiber is produced.Native Place, or where chiefly grown.Qualities, Uses, etc. MallowMalva (numerous)GenerallyThe tribe comprises cotton, etc., and numerous other fiber-giving species. Manila-hempMusa textilisPhilippine Islands.Various textile fabrics. Maroot-fiberSanseviera zeylanicaMadras, etcResembles and is used as a substitute for flax. Marsh-gladdenScirpus lacustrisBritish marshes, etcA sedge. Made into baskets, bee-hives, hassocks, etc. MulberryMorus nigra, etcChina, etcThe Chinese make coarse cloth out of the bark. Mulberry (paper)Broussonetia papyriferaPolynesia, etcThe source of Tapa cloth, made by beating out the bark by mallets, etc.; resembles both hemp and paper. Namaqua barkBrosimum namaq
Cambria (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 20
ta to Tripoli, Africa230335 1861*Tripoli, Africa, to Bengazi, Africa508420 1861*Bengazi, Africa, to Alexandria, Egypt59380 1861Dieppe, France, to Newhaven, England8025 1861*Toulon, France, to Corsica1951,550 1862Wexford, Ireland, to Aberman, Wales6350 1862Lowestoft, Eng., to Zandvoort, Holland12527 Date.FromLength in Miles.Greatest Depth in Fathoms. 1863*Cagliari, Sardinia, to Sicily2111,025 1864*Cartagena, Spain, to Oran, Africa1301,420 1864Gwadur, India, to Elphinstone Inlet, Ind very reluctantly gave up the idea of supporting it by chains. The most remarkable one ever constructed is that across the Menai Straits, on the Chester and Holyhead line of railway, and which unites the island of Anglesea with the mainland of Wales. Plate LXXII. is a general view of the Britannia Bridge from the Caernarvon side, showing also the Menai suspension-bridge. A mile distant from it is the famous Telford suspension-bridge, built in 1829 by that prince of road-makers. Telford
Lombardy (Italy) (search for this): chapter 20
Europe, etcA lichen used to give a purple dye to silks. Used in chemistry as a test for alkalies and acids. LogwoodHaematoxylon campechianumCentral AmericaUsed in dying rod and black colors, shades of purple, etc. Called also campeachy wood. Lombardy poplarPopulus dilatataFor tanning. In parts a fragrant smell to the leather, similar to that of Russia leather. MadderRubia tinctoria, etcFranceEmployed to produce the celebrated Turkey red and other dyes. Affords garancine by the action of soors be spaded up and rammed down with chalk and cow-dung. Pliny advises time slacked with the amurca of the olive to make a cement floor. Cow-dung and the marc of olives are still used in France for preparing thrashing-floors. Thrashing in Lombardy is generally performed by means of a fluted roller (Fig. 6390) drawn around in a circular track. Hohlfield of Hermerndorf, in Saxony, 1711-1771, invented a thrashing-machine while working on the estate of Gusow, in the service of the Prussian
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