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Palatine (West Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 22
t Paris, built in 1802, has a span of 104 feet, with a versed sine of but 6 feet 6 inches. The lattice bridge has generally, in practice, where great strength and rigidity are required, been combined with the arch, though examples of smaller structures more especially, in which the whole weight of the bridge and its load are borne by the truss, are extremely common. The widest single-span wooden bridge ever built in the United States is believed to have been that over the Schuylkill, at Fairmount, destroyed by fire in 1838. It had a span of 340 feet. Town's lattice-truss (side elevation). Town's lattice-bridge (end elevation). Among the various forms of bridge-truss employed in the United States may be cited those of Town, Long, Burr, Howe, and McCallum. Town's lattice-truss (Fig. 7321) has been employed for spans up to 150 feet. The roadway a rests upon sleepers b, which are supported on the transverse beams c; these rest on the stringers d d, secured by tree-nails to
Portici (Italy) (search for this): chapter 22
runk, or of boards nailed together to form a circular disk. Such are still used in Greece. The usual carriages of the ancients had two wheels, but four-wheeled carriages are shown in the Theban paintings and elsewhere, and are carefully described by Herodotus. (See cart, page 485.) The ferate orbes of Virgil are wheels shod with iron. Persius, Martial, and others call the tire canthus. Pliny ascribes the invention of four-wheeled wagons to the Phrygians. (See Fig. 1253, page 528.) At Portici are the remains of a Roman chariot-wheel; a band of iron forged out of a single piece, about 48 inches in diameter, nearly 2″ broad and 1″ thick. A portion of the nave has been preserved, which is bound with iron, and this again by a bronze plate secured by bronze nails. Jones's iron wheel. The common iron wheel of England has cast-iron hub (nave) and rim, and wrought-iron spokes. The rim has holes flaring to the outside, so as to hold the ends of the spokes, which have conical hea
Chala (Peru) (search for this): chapter 22
ing people. At Arica, the seaport of Arequipa, about twenty minutes after the first shock, all of which lasted but a few minutes, the sea was observed suddenly to recede and immediately afterward a wall of water, estimated to be 50 feet in hight, was seen advancing. This overwhelmed a large portion of the town, carrying with it the United States steamer Wateree and a Peruvian corvette, which had been anchored before the town, and were landed high and dry half a mile to the northward. At Chala three such waves swept in, the sea passing more than half a mile beyond its usual limits. At Islay there were no less than five such waves, each of increasing force, and an hour and a half after their commencement the waves still ran to a hight of forty feet above their usual level. At Iquique, a single wave some 50 feet in hight, after submerging an island lying in front of the town, and rushing far inland, soon resumed its usual condition. Similar effects have been frequently noted in
Gloucester county (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 22
a criterion of goodness. Wine-ageing apparatus. In the time of the Roman Emperor Probus, about the close of the third century, great attention was paid to the cultivation of the vine; it is supposed to have been planted on the banks of the Rhine, the Main, and the Moselle at that time, and to have been introduced into Britain. About the close of the tenth century, wine in considerable quantity and, it is said, of excellent flavor, was produced in England in the counties of Lincoln, Gloucester, and Somerset. The importation of foreign wines into England commenced soon after the Norman Conquest, and was greatly increased by the acquisition of Guienne, under Henry II. In the reign of Richard II, Spanish wines were common, and continued to grow in estimation, especially sack, which is the produce of the grape of Xeres, in Spain. Holingshed asserts that there were upward of eighty-six different kinds of wine imported from France and other countries into England in the sixt
Callao (Peru) (search for this): chapter 22
s, have been accompanied by the same phenomenon. These waves, far exceeding in hight the ordinary waves of the sea, and still more the great tidal wave which twice each day makes the circuit of the globe, have twice totally destroyed the town of Callao with the greater part of its inhabitants, carrying ships far inland. None, however, have probably equalled in their hight, or in the extent for which they have been traced over the earth's surface, that which accompanied the terrible earthquake at Arequipa a few minutes after 5 P. M., on the 13th of August, 1868. At Callao the waters retreated considerably, but the return flow was much less severe in its effects. Irregular movements of the sea, however, continued for several days. In less than three hours after the occurrence of the earthquake the effects of this wave were experienced at Coquimbo 800 miles south of Arica, and in about an hour it had reached Constitucion, 450 miles still farther to the south ward. At San Pedr
Beersheba (South Carolina, United States) (search for this): chapter 22
s thicknesses of plates. The edges to be welded are heated in the furnace, and the tube is then run under the hammer and partially revolved, to bring the joint directly between the hammer and anvil. Welding-machine. Weld′ing-swage. A block or fulling-tool for assisting the closure of a welded joint. See swage. Well. 1. A shaft dug or bored in the ground to obtain water. Lately, some of the deepest have been in search of brine and oil. See artesian well. The wells of Beersheba, dug by Abraham and re-dug by Isaac, are yet in existence. There are two large ones and five smaller ones. The larger of the two is 12 1/2 feet across, and 44 1/2 feet to the water. The curbstones of the wells, around the mouth, are worn into deep furrows by the ropes of centuries. The remains of a town are in the neighborhood, but no habitations, shrubs, or trees. The generations of Abimelech, the sons of Samuel who turned aside after filthy lucre and took bribes, the idolaters of th
Birkenhead (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 22
are 37 in number, having an area of 167.517 acres. The dry basins are 7 in number, with an area of 20.185 acres. The whole dock-water space is 235 acres, on the Liverpool side of the river. The graving docks are numerous, and the lineal yards of quay space amount to 19.195 yards. Most of the docks have their own entrances to the Mersey, and the whole chain of docks are connected independently of the river. They also have inland canal and railway connections. The dock-water space of Birkenhead, on the opposite side of the Mersey, is 153 acres. The docks of London cover an area of 227 acres; 154 acres being on the Middlesex side, and the remainder on the Surrey side. The tonnage of London is three times that of Liverpool, but the Thames has spacious and convenient moorings, while the shipping of the Mersey is necessarily accommodated in docks. The moorings of the Thames afford berths for 461 vessels. The number of vessels passing in and out of Liverpool in 1860 was 48
East India (search for this): chapter 22
beautifully marked. Ornamental furniture. DogwoodCornus floridaEastern U. S.Hard, red. Turnery. DogwoodPiscidia erythrina, etcJamaicaHard, Wheels, carriages, etc. Douglass pineAbies douglassiiBritain, etc.Medium. Carpentry, building, etc. East India blackwoodDalbergia latifoliaIndiaHeavy, close-grained. Furniture. EbonyDiospyros ebenusMauritius, Ceylon, India, AfricaHard. Boxes, inkstands, furniture, etc. Black ebony. Ebony (West Indian)Brya ebenusJamaicaHard. Turnery, cabinet-work, eze rolls, which deliver it. Other wool-washers are like centrifugal machines, or resemble some of the numerous forms of washing-machines. Wool-work′ing. See woolen Manufac-Ture. Wootz. A very superior quality of steel, made in the East Indies, and imported into America and Europe for superior edge-tools. It is used in the manufacture of the celebrated sword-blades of the East. Professor Faraday attributed its excellence to the presence of a small quantity of aluminium. A more
Oregon (Oregon, United States) (search for this): chapter 22
ow cedar)Juniperus californicaUtah to pacificYellow, lasting. Various. Cedar (Spanish)W. Ind., S Am'caCigar-boxes. Cedar (Western)Juniperus occidentalisUtah to OregonVarious. Cedar (West Indian)Cedrela odorataW. IndiesSoft. Furniture, small cabinet-work, cigar-boxes. Cedar (white)Cupressus thyoidesN. J. & southwardBuilding ad. Springs, archery bows, cues, and fishing-rods. LarchLarix europaeaEuropeDurable, Various uses; source of Venice turpentine. Larch (Western)Larix occidentalisOregon(See also Tamarac.) Laurel (mountain)Kalmia latifoliaPenn. & southwardHard, red. Turnery. Leopard-wood or Letter-woodPiratinera guianensisCentral AmericaHard; taYacca-woodJamaicaCabinet and marquetry work and turning. YewTaxus baccataBritain, etcHard. Furniture, turnery, walking-sticks, etc. YewTaxus brevifoliaCal. and OregonHard, red. Zebra-woodBrazilCabinet-work, brushes, etc. Wood, Ar-ti-fi′cial. A composition which is plastic when warm or wet (as the case may be), but harde
Maryland (Maryland, United States) (search for this): chapter 22
g are the dimensions of some of the best known timber bridges:— Widest Arch. Name.River.Place.Curve.Architect.Date. Span.Rise. Ft.Ft. In. ColopusSchuylkillPhiladelphia34020 0SegmentWernwag1813 PiscataquaPiscataquaNew Hampshire25027 4SegmentPalmer1794 BambergRegnitzGermany20817 4SegmentWiebeking1809 TrentonDelawarePennsylvania20032 0SegmentBurr1804 WrittenghenRhineSwitzerland19830 10SegmentGrubenmann1777 Pont LouisIserFreysingen15413 6SegmentWiebeking1809 Ellicott's MillsPatapscoMaryland15020 0LatticeUnknown1838 Erie RailwayPortageNew York (1,000 ft long)Trestle Foundry-barrow. Wood′en-frame Bar′row. One with an iron box, for foundry purposes. Wood-en-grav′ing. Wood-engraving, or the making of woodcuts, differs from plate-engraving in the fact that the design in the former is in cameo, while the latter is in intaglio. It is difficult to as sign a date to the invention, as the signets of royalty in ancient times were made upon the same principle, if not w
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