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Orleans, Ma. (Massachusetts, United States) (search for this): chapter 4
ive and small dispersive power. Sp. gr. 3.521. Among the celebrated diamonds may be noted the following:— Great Mogul. Found in 1550, in Golconda, and seen by Tavernier. Weighed 793 carats; cut to 279 carats (carat, 4 grains). Russian. Taken from a Brahminical idol by a French soldier; sold to the Empress Catherine for £ 90,000 and an annuity of £ 4,000. Weighs 194 carats. Pitt. Brought from India by Mr. Pitt, the grandfather of the first Earl of Chatham; sold to the Regent Duke of Orleans, in 1717, for £ 135,000. Weighed when rough, 400 carats; cut to 136 1/2 carats. Napoleon placed it in the hilt of his sword. Koh-i-noor. Seen by Tavernier in 1665, in the possession of the Great Mogul. Seized by Nadir Shah, in 1739, at the taking of Delhi. Became the property of Runjeet Sing. Captured by the English at the taking of the Punjab. Presented to the Queen by the East India Company, in 1850; weighed in the rough 800 carats, cut to 186 1/16 carats; recut to 103 3/4 carats.
Worcester (Massachusetts, United States) (search for this): chapter 4
De-tached′ work. (Fortification.) A work included in the defence, but placed outside the body of the place. De-tach′ing horses from Car′riages. A means for suddenly releasing an unmanageable team from the vehicle. The Marquis of Worcester, in his Century of inventions, 1655, describes an apparatus of this kind, under command of the passengers, in which, by means of a T-ended lever, two or four bolts could be simultaneously drawn inwards, and the horses thereby released with the in the fens of Lincolnshire. About 1708, Savery patented a steam dredgingmachine for raising ballast from the Thames. In 1796, Watt made a steam dredger for deepening Sunderland Harbor. The dredging-machine described by the Marquis of Worcester was a water-screw, but the bottom made of iron plate, spade-wise, which at the side of a boat emptieth the mud of a pond or raiseth gravel. The dredging-machine described in the Theatrum Instrumentorum et Machinarum, 1578, was rather an ele
China (China) (search for this): chapter 4
o-printing.) A mode of printing, also known as China blue. See calico-printing. Delft-ware. referred to so far. The study of astronomy in China is as ancient as the time of Abraham, and the earliest known observations are Chinese (see astronomical instruments), though we have statements o by the Chaldeans. The dials commonly used in China are mentioned by Mohammedan travelers in that ely exact even at its calculated latitude. Chinese clock-dial. 2. The graduated and numberedf a watch or clock. A dial-plate. The old Chinese dials, like the divisions of the clepsydra, wFig. 1627) is a suggestion for one for the Chinese market; the outer circle has numerals correspnk in the engraved lines. Dotch′in. The Chinese steelyard. In Hong Kong, and other ports wheith circles of brass pins to mark British and Chinese weights. Dots. (Plastering.) Nails drlogwood will be violet. Mordants were used in China and India from very distant periods, and are d
Golconda (Illinois, United States) (search for this): chapter 4
to the foot. 2. A lozenge or rhomb. The name is conferred upon nuts and bolt-heads of that form. Also upon gravers which are rhombal, and not square in crosssection. 3. A valuable gem, the hardest of all, and of various colors. It has many uses in the mechanic arts, derived from its extreme hardness; some uses in optics, owing to its high refractive and small dispersive power. Sp. gr. 3.521. Among the celebrated diamonds may be noted the following:— Great Mogul. Found in 1550, in Golconda, and seen by Tavernier. Weighed 793 carats; cut to 279 carats (carat, 4 grains). Russian. Taken from a Brahminical idol by a French soldier; sold to the Empress Catherine for £ 90,000 and an annuity of £ 4,000. Weighs 194 carats. Pitt. Brought from India by Mr. Pitt, the grandfather of the first Earl of Chatham; sold to the Regent Duke of Orleans, in 1717, for £ 135,000. Weighed when rough, 400 carats; cut to 136 1/2 carats. Napoleon placed it in the hilt of his sword. Koh-i-noor
Cathay (North Dakota, United States) (search for this): chapter 4
the [eastward] shadow, as he watched the sun gradually decline in the western sky. It is useless, then, to expect to give a date for the invention of the sun-dial. It was not an invention, but an observation. It is evident that the dial having a gnomon which makes with the horizontal plane an angle equal to the latitude of the place is the invention of the Asiatics. It is bootless to inquire whether it originated on the southern slope of the great backbone of the continent, or in far Cathay, by the Yellow Sea. Herodotus, whose fame grows clearer and brighter as years wax and wane, states that the Greeks received the sun-dial from the Chaldeans (see that of Berosus, infra). We may fairly judge the character of the ancient dials from those yet remaining in India, which are destitute of modern innovations, such as glass lenses and finely graduated metallic scales. Dr. Hooker, in his Notes in Bengal, Nepaul, etc, gives sketches of the sun-dials in the Observatory of Benares. T
United States (United States) (search for this): chapter 4
have been employed; and among some of the aboriginal inhabitants of Africa and America the dart was merely a sharp-pointed stick, the end of which was carbonized by portable winch and has cranks. The derrick is more commonly used in the United States than in Europe, and has attained what appears to be maximum effectiveness wf cattle and sheep too poor for the market are thus worked up yearly in the United States, and the lard-tank is a regular feature in the hog-slaughtering centers, Chwhich is turned over by the larger plow following. In England and in the United States another form of this plow has been used in which the precedent portion is n are much used in England. The centrifugal pump is used in England and the United States. The pumping-engines used in Holland at the Haarlem Mere are vertical doubhip was 200 cubits long; 38 cubits beam; 48 cubits midship-hight. Of the United States dry-docks at South Brooklyn, No. 1 is 500 feet long, 60 feet wide at bottom
Trincomalee (Sri Lanka) (search for this): chapter 4
other occasions that the overflows were closed, the waste water tumbling over the wall. Herrera, the architect of the Escurial, was the author of this magnificent project, which was executed between 1579 and 1594. The depth of water, when full, is 134 feet 6 inches, and the storage capacity 131,000,000 cubic feet. The Tanks of Ceylon are among the wonders of hydraulic engineering; as, for instance, the chain of tanks which unite the ancient capital Pollinarua with Tamblegam Bay and Trincomalee. Some of these are artificial lakes twenty miles in circumference, formed by embankments of massive masonry that seem to defy the hand of time. They form part of a vast system of irrigation. Similar structures are found in Southern India and Arabia, and point to the occupation of those countries by the same race; a civilized people, older than the Arabs and Hindoos. In England the dams of reservoirs are usually earthworks, the dependence for tightness being a core or wall of puddl
Gibraltar (search for this): chapter 4
wever, the ship Hamilla Mitchell was lost on the Leuconia rocks, near Shanghai; and two English divers, provided with the apparatus of Siebe and Gorman, were subsequently sent from Liverpool to attempt the rescue of the treasure on board. One of these succeeded in remaining four consecutive hours under water at the depth of 23 fathoms upon one occasion, during which he recovered 64 boxes of specie. The engraving on the opposite page illustrates submarine operations at the anchorage off Gibraltar, as conducted with the diving-bell in conjunction with divers arrayed in the apparatus of Ronquayral and Denayrouze. In this, whether the man be naked or covered with impervious clothing, his respiration may be made to depend on the exercise of his own will and the power of his lungs, or the air-supply reservoir may be supplied by air-pumps above, as shown in the figure. The artificial lung or air-supply regulator consists of a strong metallic reservoir, preferably steel, capable of resi
Texas (Texas, United States) (search for this): chapter 4
ther grease tanks used for workingup poor carcasses and the offal of slaughter-houses belong to this class of apparatus. Thousands of carcasses of cattle and sheep too poor for the market are thus worked up yearly in the United States, and the lard-tank is a regular feature in the hog-slaughtering centers, Chicago, Cincinnati, etc., where the entrails and other offal yielding grease are thus treated on a large scale. The tanks have also been introduced into Buenos Ayres and probably into Texas, where beeves are slaughtered for their hides and tallow. The carcasses, after removing a few choice parts, are dumped into the tanks, when steam is applied, resolving them into fat, water holding soluble matters in solution, and mud, the latter containing the earthy and some other particles. Of this class is Wilson's tank for rendering lard and tallow, patented in 1844. The tank is preferably a vertical cylinder, and is calculated for high-pressure steam. It has a perforated steam-pip
e water. Lorini on Fortification, 1607, shows a square box, bound with iron, furnished with windows and a seat for the diver. Kessler in 1617, Witsen in 1671, and Borelli in 1679, gave attention to the subject and contributed to the efficiency of the apparatus. A diving-bell company was formed in England in 1688, and the operators made some sucessful descents on the coast of Hispaniola. In 1664, cannon were recovered from wrecks of the Spanish Armada by the Laird of Melgim, near the Isle of Man, but not sufficient to pay. Previous unsuccessful attempts had been made by Colquhoun, of Glasgow, who depended for air upon a leathern tube reaching above the surface of the water. Dr. Halley, in 1715, improved the diving-bell by a contrivance for supplying it with fresh air by means of barrels lowered from the vessel, from which the bell was suspended, the foul air escaping by a cock. This also allowed the bell to be completely filled with air, rendering the whole of its interior spac
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