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modern languages. The rich work of the looms of Damascus opened the eyes of the rugged men of the West, who alternately won and lost the rocky mountain-road which led to Jerusalem, and the fabric has retained its name and substantially its character ever since. Silk and worsted damasks were favorite materials with our grandmothers for bed-hangings, curtains, and the upholstering of furniture. A bed of ancient damask. b. A woven fabric of linen, extensively made in Scotland and Ireland, and used for table-cloths, fine toweling, napkins, etc. By a particular management of the warp-threads in the loom, figures, fruits, and flowers are exhibited on the surface, as in the ancient damask. It is known as washing damask, or, when unbleached, as brown, damask. A small patterned toweling, known as diaper, has a figure produced in the same manner. c. Stuff with a wavy or watered appearance. Moire. 2. (Metallurgy.) A wavy pattern shown in articles forged from a combined
Spring Garden (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 4
. As reduced to the actual delivery of water, in the reservoir, it was 76,386,262 and 76,584,894 by the two methods respectively. The following is the duty officially given for the engines cited: — Brooklyn, No. 1, double-acting beam60,140,700 Belleville (Jersey City), Cornish62,823,300 Hartford (3 experiments), crank58,779,300 to 64,669,400 Brooklyn, No. 3, double-acting beam72,000,000 Cambridge (2 experiments), Worthington double-cylinder, not duplex66,941,100 to 67,574,600 Spring Garden (Philadelphia), Cornish58,905,300 The dity or useful effect of the Cornish pumpingengine has been more closely observed and recorded than that of any other engine. The duty is reported monthly, and is reduced to tabulated form, from which the yearly report is made out. The duty of these engines has been gradually improved. It is estimated by the number of pounds raised one foot high by a bushel of Welsh coals, 94 pounds. Pounds, 1 foot high. In 1769, the Newcomen engine5,500
Dead Point (Oregon, United States) (search for this): chapter 4
r, to defend the glass against the blows of the waves. Dead-lock. (Locksmithing.) A lock operated on one side by a handle and on the other side by a key. Dead Met′al. Metal, such as gold or silver, left with dead or lusterless, that is, unburnished or unpolished, surface. Matt. Dead-plate. (Furnace.) An ungrated portion of a furnace floor, on which coal is ccked previously to pushing into the fire above the grates. It was introduced by Watt in his patent of 1785. Dead-point. One of the points at which the crank assumes a position in line with the pitman or the rod which impels it. In steam-engines with vertical cylinders, the dead-points are the highest and lowest positions of the crank. A dead-center. Dead-ris′ing. The portion of the ship's bottom formed by the floor timbers. Deads. (Mining.) Non-metalliferous rock excavated around a vein or in forming drifts, levels, shafts, cross-courses, etc. Many veins are too narrow for working, and
Havre (France) (search for this): chapter 4
a central post and swings 90°, opening two passages for vessels, one on each side. This is a pivot-bridge. 3. The bascule-bridge turns on a horizontal pivot, standing in a vertical position on the side of the water-way while the vessel passes by. The inner end is in excess of the weight of the roadway and descends into a pit built with hydraulic masonry. This pit is not material, perhaps, in fortifications, but is not desirable in ordinary road or dock work. The bascule may be seen at Havre and Hull. See Basculebridge. Rolling-bridge. 4. The rolling-bridge has been introduced on some English railways. The bridge passes laterally upon a carriage until it has passed the junction of the line of rails, and then rolls inward to leave the water-way clear. In the example, the movable cars or platforms are suspended by rods and form traveling trucks, which run upon rails laid on the top of metallic tubes supported on pillars, and which serve also as viaducts, by which means
Davenport (Iowa, United States) (search for this): chapter 4
cylinders are alongside each other. The rods of the pistons of the respective cylinders are united to the cranks, which have a relative angle of 180° on the same shaft. Steam admitted above the smaller piston is used directly, and, the valve being raised, is cut off; and the annular space between the two disks forms a means of conveying the steam below the said piston, where it is equalized as to its effect on that piston, and above the larger piston, where it is utilized expansively. Davenport's steam-engine. In Fig. 1700, the smaller cylinder is contained within the larger. The outer piston is a cylinder whose two heads are packed in the main cylinder. The steam is received through a hollow fixed piston within the larger piston. An axial pipe conducts the steam thereto. The steam first acts on the inner side of the outer piston-head, and exhausts to act expansively on the outer end of the outer piston. It then passes through the annular space between the side of the outer
Bombay (Maharashtra, India) (search for this): chapter 4
der the wales, and thinned to correspond with the thickness of the bottom plank. Ding-dong. (Horology.) A striking arrangement in which two bells of different tones are used and struck in succession to mark the quarter-hours. Dinged-work. Work embossed by blows which depress one surface and raise the other. See chasing. Din′gy. 1. A row-boat of the Hoogly, which probably gave the name to the little jolly-boat of the merchant-service, mentioned below. 2. A boat of Bombay, propelled by paddles, and having one mast and a settee-sail. 3. An extra boat of a ship for common uses. It is clinker-built, from 12 to 14 feet long, and has a beam one third of its length. Di-op′ter. An ancient altitude, angle, and leveling instrument; said to have been invented by Hipparchus. Dioptra. Di-op′tric light. The dioptric system of lighting, used in lighthouses, as distinguished from the catoptric, which is by reflectors. Refraction instead of reflection.
Woolwich (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 4
e expunging term of the proof-reader, marked on the margin. Delft-blue. (Calico-printing.) A mode of printing, also known as China blue. See calico-printing. Delft-ware. A kind of pottery originally manufactured at Delft, in Holland, in the fourteenth century. It is now considered coarse, but was among the best of its day, being considered equal to the Italian in quality, but some what inferior in its ornamentation. The glaze of the Delft-ware is made as follows: Kelp and Woolwich sand are calcined together, to form a vitreous mass called frit. Lead and tin are calcined to form a gray, powdery oxide. The frit is powdered and mixed with the oxide, zaffre being added to confer blue color, arsenic for dead-white. This is fused, making an opaque enamel; ground and mixed to the consistence of cream. Delft-ware is made of a calcareous clay of varying color, which is ground in water, strained, and evaporated to a plastic consistence; it is then tempered, and stored in
Hertfordshire (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 4
as visible at Belfast, a distance of nearly seventy miles, in a direct line. Subsequently, Colonel Colby made a lime-light signal visible from Antrim, in Ireland, to Ben Lomnd, in Scotland, a distance of ninetyfive miles in a straight line. It is stated that, intensified by a parabolic reflector, it has been observed at a distance of 112 miles. It is understood that the first application in practice was when it was required to see Leith Hill, in Surry, from Berkhampstead Tower, in Hertfordshire. The practical application was described in two papers published in the Philosophical Transactions of 1826 and 1831. The apparatus consists of a lamp which admits oxygen and hydrogen gas at the respective apertures o h. The gases come from separate holders, and do not mix till they reach the chamber c. Here they pass through several thicknesses of wire-gauze, which prevent explosion by the reflex action of the flame, and then issue at two points, being projected upon the ball b, wh
Hallets Point (New York, United States) (search for this): chapter 4
od, the metal being battered down around them to form a bezel. The drill-bar slides vertically, and is rotated by bevel-gearing. He refers to the need of water on the drill. Diamond tools. Leschot in 1860-64, and Pihet, in 1866, devoted some care to the matter; the latter introducing the annular drill-head (shown at a′, Fig. 1631), which is a steel ring studded with black diamonds. The heads of the drills used at the Mont Cenis Tunnel, and the excavations by General Newton at Hallet's Point, East River, N. Y., were of this character. Fig. 1632 represents a prospecting or open-cut drill detached from the boiler which drives it. The two oscillating engines c drive the bevel-gearing d, which rotates the drill-bar e f from 900 to 1,000 revolutions per minute, boring in ordinary rock from 15 to 20 feet per hour. a is the frame, B the steam connections. Fig. 1633 is a mining or tunnel drill. The upright frame E E, which supports the swivel drillhead with its gears and dri
Rouen (France) (search for this): chapter 4
b drives the spade-wheel L′ through the intervention of gearing. The wheel B is in the advance, and the depth of penetration is regulated at the rear of the frame above the caster-wheel N. The shares M M are removable. Other forms of spaders have blades thrust out and retracted as the machine advances. Rotary digging-machine. Digue. A sea-wall or breakwater. An artificial construction opposing a barrier to the sea or preventing the denudation of the land thereby. See dike. Rouen quay. Dike. 1. A levee or wall of earth, gabions or carpentry, to prevent the encroachment of water, or to serve as a wharf or jetty. The structures vary extremely, according to purpose, exposure, and the nature of the foundations. The more superior class consists of a timber structure strongly braced, founded on piles, filled in with stone, and faced with planking or masonry. See sea-wall; jetty; breakwater. The dikes of Holland are the most memorable of their class, and pro
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