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Hudson (New Jersey, United States) (search for this): chapter 4
unds of a cubic foot of water (62.5), and the height in feet to which the water was raised for delivery (174.82); and dividing this product by the number of hundreds of pounds of coal consumed per hour (4), the duty was 77,358,478. As reduced to the actual delivery of water, in the reservoir, it was 76,386,262 and 76,584,894 by the two methods respectively. The following is the duty officially given for the engines cited: — Brooklyn, No. 1, double-acting beam60,140,700 Belleville (Jersey City), Cornish62,823,300 Hartford (3 experiments), crank58,779,300 to 64,669,400 Brooklyn, No. 3, double-acting beam72,000,000 Cambridge (2 experiments), Worthington double-cylinder, not duplex66,941,100 to 67,574,600 Spring Garden (Philadelphia), Cornish58,905,300 The dity or useful effect of the Cornish pumpingengine has been more closely observed and recorded than that of any other engine. The duty is reported monthly, and is reduced to tabulated form, from which the yearly report
Londonderry (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 4
ng a small ball of quicklime to the action of the oxy-hydrogen blowpipe, or the lime may be placed in the flame of a spirit-lamp fed by a jet of pure oxygen gas. Drummond's apparatus was so constructed that the lamp fed itself automatically with spirit and with oxygen, supplying itself with balls of lime as they were gradually consumed, and was provided with a parabolic silvered copper mirror. With this apparatus the light produced by a ball of lime not larger than a boy's marble, at Londonderry, was visible at Belfast, a distance of nearly seventy miles, in a direct line. Subsequently, Colonel Colby made a lime-light signal visible from Antrim, in Ireland, to Ben Lomnd, in Scotland, a distance of ninetyfive miles in a straight line. It is stated that, intensified by a parabolic reflector, it has been observed at a distance of 112 miles. It is understood that the first application in practice was when it was required to see Leith Hill, in Surry, from Berkhampstead Tower, i
Scotland (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 4
ncient damask. b. A woven fabric of linen, extensively made in Scotland and Ireland, and used for table-cloths, fine toweling, napkins, etemy is 17 × 17 inches. Dem′y-os′tage. A woolen stuff used in Scotland. Den-drom′e-ter. An instrument for measuring the hight and dgiven in 1357 by the Lord Mayor of London, the Kings of France and Scotland being prisoners and the King of Cyprus on a visit (temp. Edward IId disturbing the order of ore-bearing strata. 3. A stone fence (Scotland). 4. A ditch for water. Di-lat′or. An instrument for exteA stout figured linen (damask), said to be named after the town in Scotland (Dornock) where it was made, but probably deriving its name from Tg-machines, Suez canal. Duncan's dredger, used on the Clyde in Scotland, has an iron hull 161 feet long, 29 feet beam, 10 feet 9 inches deime-light signal visible from Antrim, in Ireland, to Ben Lomnd, in Scotland, a distance of ninetyfive miles in a straight line. It is sta
Lamar (Missouri, United States) (search for this): chapter 4
and neck painful. Twice he nearly faints and ceases to breathe. His sight appears troubled, everything turns round with him, and his gaze has no steadiness. This, as the idiom shows, is the French account, and is preferably given without impairing its graphic character. The conclusion arrived at on this occasion was, that it was impracticable to work for any length of time at a depth exceeding 130 feet. In 1869, however, the ship Hamilla Mitchell was lost on the Leuconia rocks, near Shanghai; and two English divers, provided with the apparatus of Siebe and Gorman, were subsequently sent from Liverpool to attempt the rescue of the treasure on board. One of these succeeded in remaining four consecutive hours under water at the depth of 23 fathoms upon one occasion, during which he recovered 64 boxes of specie. The engraving on the opposite page illustrates submarine operations at the anchorage off Gibraltar, as conducted with the diving-bell in conjunction with divers arrayed
North America (search for this): chapter 4
ith the Danes in the time of Alfred the Great, ninth century. It is also shown in the sculptures of Karnak, in Egypt. The battle-axe of the Scythians in the time of Herodotus was double-bitted. It is the Sacan sagaris. Seylax, an historian of an age preceding that of Herodotus, compared Egypt to a double-bitted axe, the neck which joins the two heads being at the narrow part of the valley in the vicinity of Memphis. The double-bitted axe is found in the tumuli and barrows of North America. It is in three forms: 1, with a circumferential groove for the occupation of the withe or split handle to which it is lashed; 2, with an eye traversing the head; 3, with a socket for the handle. See axe; battle-axe; hatchet. Doub′le-block. (Nautical.) A block with two sheaves which are ordinarily placed on the same pin, but rotate in separate mortises in the shell. Other double-blocks have the sheaves arranged one above the other. See long-tackle block; shoe-block; fidd
Devonshire (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 4
ses were used in the South Foreland light in 1752, and in the Portland light, England, in 1789. The system fell into disfavor, owing to certain mechanical difficulties in the construction and arrangement of the lenses. It was revived and improved by Fresnel about 1810, and has been generally adopted throughout France and Holland, and partially in England. It is considered superior to the catoptric, and was readopted in England in 1834, being placed in the Lundy Island Lighthouse, Devonshire, England. The Fresnel dioptric lamp consists of a mechanical, four-wicked oil-lamp, placed in the center of an octagonal glass prism; the center part of each of the sides being formed of a plano-convex lens of about 15 inches diameter, which is surrounded by a series of glass rings of a spherical triangular form, so as to produce the same effect upon the rays as is produced by the central lens. Allan Stevenson, Arago, and Faraday are credited with improvements in the details. Fresnel's
Minerva (Ohio, United States) (search for this): chapter 4
her hands to the spindle, and her hands hold the distaff. She is represented as cutting up a piece of cloth to make into garments, while two of her maidens are at work with their distaffs. The figure b is the more modern Italian. The distaff and spindle are referred to repeatedly in the Old Testament, and were the only known means of spinning in Egypt, Phoenicia, Arabia, India, Greece, and Rome. Distaff spinning and weaving are shown at Beni Hassan, in Egypt. The Greeks represented Minerva with a distaff as being the inventress of spinning. Catullus describes it clearly: — The loaded distaff in the left hand placed, With spongy coils of snow-white wool was graced; From these the right hand lengthening fibers drew, Which into thread 'neath nimble fingers grew. At intervals a gentle touch was given, By which the twirling whorl was onward driven. Then, when the sinking spindle reached the ground, The recent thread around its spire was wound; Until the clasp within its nip
Pekin (Illinois, United States) (search for this): chapter 4
are made to travel at the same absolute surface-rate and in the same direction, and communicate motion equivalent to the difference between the circumferences of the two. See, for an illustration, differential feed. See also equational-box. Diffe-ren′tial Pul′ley. This, in a somewhat clumsy form, has been known for centuries under the name of the Chinese windlass, and one was found by the allied English and French armies to be in use for raising one of the drawbridges in the city of Pekin. It was described by Dr. Carpenter in his Mechanical philosophy, etc., 1844. The chain winds over two drums of different diameters, winding on to one as it unwinds from the other; the effect gained is as the difference between the two, the smaller the difference the greater the power and the less the speed. Differential Pulleu. Differential pulley. In the geared differential pulley the effect is produced by making one more tooth in one of the wheels the chain passes over than i
Appenzell (Switzerland) (search for this): chapter 4
wn on to or as near as possible to a stake, being a game of skill rather than of strength. In country places horseshoes are often used. The Scotch game of putting the stone. or throwing the hammer, resembles the hurling of the lump of iron in the funeral games of the Greeks. A heavy mass of a spherical form (solos) was perforated at the center to receive a thong or rope which formed the handle. In the form of the discobolia it is yet used by the mountaineers in the canton of Appenzell, in Switzerland. In the Scotch game of curling, the stone or iron block is propelled along the ice to a stake or base, called the pee, the object being to land it as near home as possible and dislodge opponents. Dumb-fur′nace. A ventilating furnace for mines, so contrived that the foul inflammable air from the more remote parts of the mine shall not be brought in contact with the fire at the mouth of the up-cast shaft a. This is effected by causing the air from those parts to be introduce
Hebron, Conn. (Connecticut, United States) (search for this): chapter 4
were folding, and the two leaves of the other door were folding. It is not easy to find in any other very ancient author so clear a description of the proportions and construction of a building as is found in 1 Kings, VI. A pair of doors have figured somewhat largely in the history of East Indian conquest. It is seldom that so much fuss has been made about a pair of doors since Samson took those of Gaza from their hinges, about 1120 B. C., and carried them to the top of a hill before Hebron. He took them bar and all, not condescending to unlock them, but tearing them from their foundations. The doors of the Temple of Siva, at Somnauth, a town of Guzerat, in Hindostan, were of sandal-wood, elaborately carved in correspondence with the other portions of the temple, which was an oblong hall 96 × 68 feet, crowned by a dome. When Mahmoud, of Ghizni, at the head of his Mohammedan hordes, invaded India (A. D. 1004), on a mixed mission of plunder and conversion, he mingled avarice
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