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f paper the dots and dashes composing his alphabet.
The paper itself is now generally dispensed with, at least in this country, and the signals read by sound, — a practice which conduces to accuracy in transmission, as the ear is found less liable to mistake the duration and succession of sounds than the eye to read a series of marks on paper.
Bain, in 1846, patented the electro-chemical telegraph which dispensed with the relay-magnet at intermediate stations; and subsequently Gintl, in Austria, and Bonelli, constructed telegraphs of this class, varying in details from that of Bain.
See electro-chemical telegraph.
Wheatstone's first telegraph comprised five pointing needles and as many line wires, requiring the deflection of two of the needles to indicate each letter.
His first dial instrument was patented in 1840; modifications were, however, subsequently made in it. The transmission of messages was effected by a wheel having fifteen teeth and as many inter-spaces, each r