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Fortress Monroe (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 6
Gallery.Spur. Glacis.Star-fort. Gorge.Stockade. Half-moon.Sunken battery. Half-sunken battery.Superior slope. Herrison.Swallow-tail. Herse.Tenailles. Hersillon.Tenaillon. Horn-work.Terre-plein. Hurdle.Tete de pont. Hurter.Tower. Indented line.Trace. Indented parapet.Traverse. Interior slope.Traversing-platform. Trench.Turret. Trench-cart.Van-fosse. Trench cavalier.Zigzag. Trous de loup. For′tress. A large permanent fortification, such as, on our continent, Fortress Monroe, Quebec, St. Juan de Ulloa, Moro Castle. They are too numerous in Europe to be thus summarily cited. For′ty-eightmo. (Printing.) A book made up of sheets printed 48 pages on a side. 48mo. For′ward-fire Cartridge. One in which the fulminate is at or in the base of the ball, forward of the powder. It is exploded by a stem d, as in the figure, or else by a needle which penetrates the whole extent of the powder, and strikes the fulminate in the base of the bullet. See need
Ottawa (Canada) (search for this): chapter 6
tractive power on the lower driving-wheel. d shows another form. A collar fastened to the central shaft has four pivoted arms. When the rim turns in one direction, the arms turn on their pivots, leaving the rim and failing to transfer the motion to the shaft. When the rim turns in the contrary direction, the arms catch against it and are rotated by the contact, turning the shaft also. The friction-wheel feed, by which logs are fed to the gang-saws in the large lumber-mills of Ottawa, Canada, consists of a horizontal wheel 40 inches in diameter, and an upright one driven by band from the engine-shaft, and 24 inches diameter. (See Fig. 1601.) The horizontal wheel is vertically adjustable by a hand-wheel and shaft on the working floor of the mill, the friction-wheel slipping on a spline. As the said wheel approaches towards the center of the driving-wheel, the speed of the feed is lessened, and conversely; if it cross the center, the motion is in the other direction, and
Worcester (Massachusetts, United States) (search for this): chapter 6
, which are found in the most perfect fonts, and used in astronomical, classic, commercial, musical, chemical, botanical, arithmetical, and mathematical dissertations. For these, see an excellent digest on pp. 1692 – 96 of Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, edition of 1867. Almost every science has symbols of its own. Algebra has one set, chemistry another. For a dictionary which attempts to represent the minute shades of pronunciation a great number are required. Thus in Webster or Worcester, what with letters with dots above and dots below, lines above, below, and across, there are probably a hundred additional characters. Some foreign languages have a very complicated alphabet. The Greek, with its accents and breathings, requires about 200. Formerly there were so many logotypes and abbreviations as to require 750 sorts. The Oriental alphabets are complex. The Hebrew, with the Masoretic points, requires about 300 sorts, many differing only by a point, stroke, or angle.
Rotherham (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 6
on the other. Sir John Robison, formerly president of the Royal Scottish Society of Arts, suggested, in 1843, the making of curvilinear files by cutting flat strips of steel plate and then rolling them into shape and tempering them. Cammel's improvement was to make the plate thinner towards the edges, so that it might bend equally, and not too much in the middle, as it was apt to do when of an even thickness. He also suggested to make the teeth by a graver, in an automatic machine. Rotherham and Holden's file-cutting machine. Fig. 1967 shows a file-cutting machine in which the blanks are secured side by side on the upper surface of the bed, which is automatically fed after each stroke by the feed-screw; a separate chisel and hammer act upon each blank; the chisels are supported by springs on arms with roller feet, which bear upon the blank; the chisels are thrown back after each cut to raise a burr. Card and Studley's file-cutter. In Fig. 1968, the sliding head to w
Hammonton (New Jersey, United States) (search for this): chapter 6
ssisted by a tool having an iron handle and a wooden cross-piece at the end. The plate on which it is flatted is of devitrified glass, fire-proof clay, sandstone, or other material which will resist heat and maintain the essential perfectly smooth surface. It is known as the spreading-plate, flatting-plate, flatting-stone, or flatting-hearth. Flatting-furnace. Flat′ting-fur′nace. One in which a split cylinder of glass is opened out. See flatting. William Coffan, of Hammonton, New Jersey, patented a machine for flattening cylinder glass, October 1, 1830, which was intended to prevent injury to the glass while cooling by shifting the stone on which it was flattened from the flattening to the cooling oven. Flat′ting-mill. 1. A rolling-mill producing sheet-metal. In the Mint; the rolling-mill for producing the ribbon from which the planchets are punched. The first flatting-mill in England was erected at Sheen, near Richmond, by a Dutchman, 1663. 2. A mi<
Chesapeake Bay (United States) (search for this): chapter 6
eir faces in one vertical plane and their axes on a line inclined to the perpendicular. The rate of revolution is such as to show a flash of light every five seconds, alternating with periods of dimness. This light is one of the modes of varying the appearance, so that a mariner may be able to distinguish one light from another when coming near land on a coast where the number of lights is considerable; as, for instance, the three kinds on Cape Henry and Cape Charles, at the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, and at Hog Island, on the coast of Northampton County, Virginia, about thirty miles north of Cape Charles. Lights are distinguished as — Fixed.Flashing. Revolving.Colored. Intermittent.Double. These are variously combined, as: revolving white; revolving red and white; revolving red and two whites; double fixed; double revolving, etc., etc. See light ; lighthouse. See Lighthouses, their construction and illumination, by Allan Stevenson; Weale's Series, No. 47. Flash-pipe.
Mexico (Mexico, Mexico) (search for this): chapter 6
coil of silvered wire is adapted to vibrate over the meshes of the sieve and expel the flour. Flour-sifter. Branching-machine for artificial flowers. Flow′ers, Arti-fi′cial. Ornaments simulating the natural products of the garden; made from wire, gauze, cloth, paper, shavings, wax, shell, feathers, etc. Cutting-punches and scissors are used for shaping; gauffering-presses for stamping into the various graceful shapes and puckers. The feather-flower makers of South America and Mexico had attained great skill in the time of Cortes. Italy led the way in Europe; France followed, and now leads. Fig. 2038 shows a French machine for branching artificial flowers, that is, braiding them or leaves to a stem. The basis of the stems is wire, and two threads of suitable material are laid along this wire to prevent subsequent slipping of the colored thread, which forms the outer covering of the stems. The ends of the short stems of leaves, flowers, buds, and fruits being laid
New Castle, Ky. (Kentucky, United States) (search for this): chapter 6
ches long, 3 by 3/4 inches, bolted together through the rails by 4 bolts, allowance being made by oval bolt-holes for expansion and contraction of the rails. The fish-joint with keys instead of bolts was first used (Holley) by Barr of Newcastle, Delaware, in 1843. In Samuel's fish-joint the bolt passes through a hole in one fish-plate and is tapped into the other. This obviates the nut, which is apt to be in the way of the wheel-flange. Fish-ket′tle. A long kettle adapted to boiles of folded cloth while they are vulcanized and blended together by a steam heat of say 280° F. Flat-rail. A railroad rail consisting of a simple flat bar, spiked to a longitudinal sleeper. Tramways of wood were laid down by Beaumont at Newcastle, in 1602. They were protected by flat straps of iron in 1738, at Whitehaven. Flat cast-iron plates were laid at Coalbrookdale in 1767. The angular cast-iron rail was used in 1776. Edge rails of cast-iron in 1789. Rolled rails in 1820. See
Munich (Bavaria, Germany) (search for this): chapter 6
on columns were liable to give way suddenly, owing to the expansion and contraction by heat and jets of water. Mr. Mullett, the supervising architect of the Treasury Departmnent, indorses the statement, and prefers sound oak timber to cast-iron, especially if it be treated with a liquid silicate. Fire-proofing by rendering the timber of the structure incombustible has been frequently attempted. Payne's process consists of immersion in a solution of barium or calcium. Professor Fuchs of Munich recommends as a material for rendering wood fireproof a composition of potassa or soda, 10 parts; siliceous earth, 15 parts; charcoal, 1 part, fused and formed into a water-glass and applied in solution. It forms a vitreous coating. An English composition is as follows: Fine sand, 1 part; wood ashes, 2 parts; slaked lime, 3 parts. Grind in oil, lay on with a painter's brush, the first coat thin and the next thick. Fire-proofing may be said to be accomplished when—1, the building is o
Antwerp, Paulding County, Ohio (Ohio, United States) (search for this): chapter 6
vessel freighted with combustibles and explosives, and turned adrift so as to float among the vessels of the enemy, against a bridge or other object which may be burned by the fire or destroyed by the resulting explosion. Fire-ships were used at the siege of insular Tyre. By the Rhodians against the Syrians, 150 B. C. In the action near Carthage, when the fleet of Basilicus was destroyed by Genseric. In the naval warfare of the Knights of Malta and the Turks. At the siege of Antwerp, 1585. By Sir Francis Drake against the Spanish Armada, 1588. By the Greeks against the Turks, 1826. The Chinese against the English in the villainous opium-war. In 1760 they formed a regular portion of the British navy. As a distinct class of vessels, they are now discontinued. They are particularly serviceable in defence and in attacking ships at anchor, and besides the skillful but ineffectual use of them by the Chinese, the instance may be mentioned of the fire-rafts which
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