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s, the two divisions of McLaws, and the division of Walker, was assigned. Jackson was to proceed by way of Shlls on the Maryland side known as Maryland Heights; Walker was to cross the Potomac below Harper's Ferry and ttely proceeded to put himself in communication with Walker and McLaws, who were respectively to co-op erate in the investment from Loudon and Maryland heights. Walker was already in position on Loudon Heights, and McLawng some pieces up the rugged steep, and Jackson and Walker being already in position, the investment of Harper and fifty; Hayes' brigade, five hundred and fifty; Walker's brigade, seven hundred. This would make a total regimental commander and all of his staff; and Colonel Walker and one of his staff had been disabled, and they rout. two Confederate divisions, under McLaws and Walker, taken from the Confederate right, reached the fielder Longstreet— namely, the divisions of McLaws and Walker—and this force he applied at the point of actual co
Warrenton Ewell (search for this): chapter 6
cter they might have had with more comprehensive dispositions. Hooker formed his corps of eighteen thousand men, with Doubleday's division on the right, Meade's in the centre, and Ricketts' on the left. Jackson opposed him with two divisions, Ewell's division being advanced to command the open ground, while the Stonewall division lay in reserve in the woodland on the west side of the Hagerstown road. His entire force present numbered four thousand men—a great disproportion of numbers. e division was reduced to the numbers of a small brigade, and, at the beginning of the fight, numbered not over one thousand six hundred men.—Reports of the Army of Northern Virginia, vol. II., pp. 222,223. Of the number of the three brigades of Ewell's division holding the advanced line, General Early, who, at a subse quent part of the day, came into command of it, reports as follows: Lawton's brigade, one thousand one hundred and fifty; Hayes' brigade, five hundred and fifty; Walker's brigad
crossed the Antietam during the night and lay in reserve a mile to the rear, was ordered up to support and relieve Hooker's troops. Of this corps, the first division, under General Williams, took position on the right, and the second, under General Greene, on the left. During the deployment, that veteran soldier, General Mansfield, fell mortally wounded. The command of the corps fell to General Williams, and the division of the latter to General Crawford, who, with his own and Gordon's brigade, made an advance across the open field, and succeeded in seizing a point of woods on the west side of the Hagerstown road. At the same time, Greene's division on the left was able to clear its front, and crossed into the left of the Dunker church. Yet the tenure of these positions was attended with heavy loss; the troops, reduced to the attempt to hold their own, began to waver and break, and General Hooker was being carried from the field severely wounded, when, opportunely, towards nine o
ld ridge, named Bolivar Heights, which falls off in graceful undulations southward into the Valley of the Shenandoah. The picturesque little village of Harper's Ferry lies nestling in the basin formed by these three heights, which tower into an almost Alpine sublimity. A line drawn from any one mountain-top to either of the others must be two miles in stretch; yet rifle-cannon crowning these heights can easily throw their projectiles from each to other— a sort of Titanic game of bowls which Mars and cloudcom-pelling Jove might carry on in sportive mood. But the Maryland Height is the Saul of the triad of giant mountains, and far o'ertops its fellows. Of course, it completely commands Harper's Ferry, into which a plunging fire even of musketry can be had from it. While therefore Harper's Ferry is itself the merest military trap, lying as it does at the bottom of this rocky funnel, yet the Maryland Height is a strong position, and if its rearward slope were held by a determined even
in the field. The Sixth Corps, under General Franklin, embraced the divisions of Smith (W. F.), Slocum, and Couch. Porter's did not leave Washington until the 12th of September, and rejoined the armimilar to that at Turner's Gap, and the operations were of a like kind. Forming his troops with Slocum's division on the right of the road and Smith's on the left, Franklin advanced his line, drivinghe mountain to near its summit, where, after an action of three hours, the crest was carried. Slocum's line, on the right, formed of Bartlett's and Torbett's brigades, supported by Newton, carried crest. Smith's line, formed of Brooks' and Irwin's brigades, was disposed for the protection of Slocum's flank, and charged up the mountain simultaneously. The brunt of the action fell upon Bartletthe Antietam Now, between twelve and one o'clock, Franklin with two divisions of his corps, under Slocum and W. F. Smith (Couch remaining behind to occupy Maryland Heights), reached the field of battle
G. G. Meade (search for this): chapter 6
h of the turnpike is divided into a double crest by a ravine, and Hooker put in Meade's division on the right, and Hatch's on the left; Rickett's division being heldsh between the Confederates and the division of Pennsylvania Reserves under General Meade, the opposing forces rested on their arms for the night, both occupying a smed his corps of eighteen thousand men, with Doubleday's division on the right, Meade's in the centre, and Ricketts' on the left. Jackson opposed him with two divisont, inflicted severe loss on the enemy. Hooker then advanced his centre under Meade to seize the Hagerstown road and the woods beyond. In attempting to execute thes of Hood that had moved up in support, issued from the woods, and threw back Meade's line, which was much broken. At the same time, Ricketts' division on the lef, had lost nearly half his effective force by straggling. McClellan: Report; Meade: Report. In this state of facts, his offensive power was completely gone; and,
. 222,223. Of the number of the three brigades of Ewell's division holding the advanced line, General Early, who, at a subse quent part of the day, came into command of it, reports as follows: Lawton's brigade, one thousand one hundred and fifty; Hayes' brigade, five hundred and fifty; Walker's brigade, seven hundred. This would make a total for the two divisions of four thousand men—the number above given. After an hour's bloody bushwhacking, Hooker's troops succeeded in clearing the hither wfield; Colonel Douglas, commanding Lawton's brigade, had been killed; and the brigade had sustained a loss of five hundred and fifty-four killed and wounded out of one thousand one hundred and fifty, losing five regimental commanders out of six. Hayes' brigade had sustained a loss of three hundred and twenty-three out of five hundred and fifty, including every regimental commander and all of his staff; and Colonel Walker and one of his staff had been disabled, and the brigade he was commanding
of action on the right; and each in succession, while exacting heavy damage of the enemy, had been so punished as to lose all offensive energy; so that noon found them simply holding their own. Porter with his small reserve corps, numbering some fifteen thousand men, held the centre, while Burnside remained inactive on the left, not having yet passed the Antietam. The left of Sumner's command was sustained by Pleasonton's cavalry division and the horse batteries, to whose support most of Sykes' division (Porter's corps) in the afternoon crossed the Antietam Now, between twelve and one o'clock, Franklin with two divisions of his corps, under Slocum and W. F. Smith (Couch remaining behind to occupy Maryland Heights), reached the field of battle, from where the action at Crampton's Pass had left him. General McClellan had designed retaining Franklin on the east side of the Antietam, to operate on either flank or on the centre, as circumstances might require. But by the time he neare
s a strong position, and if its rearward slope were held by a determined even though small force, it would be very hard and hazardous to assail. Colonel Miles, in the distribution of his command, had posted on Maryland Heights a force under Colonel Ford, retaining the bulk of his troops in Harper's Ferry. This was a faulty disposition. He should have evacuated the latter place, and transferred his whole force to Maryland Heights, which he could readily have held till McClellan came up. Undeom General Halleck, he was bound, however, to hold Harper's Ferry to the last extremity, and, interpreting this order literally as applying to the town itself, he refused to take this step when urged to it by his subordinates. But what was worse, Ford, after opposing a very feeble and unskilful resistance to McLaws' attack on the 13th, retired to Harper's Ferry, spiking his guns and toppling them down the declivity. Thus Maryland Heights was abandoned altogether. McLaws succeeded in dragging
E. E. Cross (search for this): chapter 6
e-enforced by the division of Anderson, In the mean time, General R. H. Anderson reported to me with some three or four thousand men as re-enforcements to my command. I directed him to form immediately behind my men.—Hill: Reports of the Army of Northern Virginia, vol. II., p. 116. assumed a vigorous offensive, and endeavored to seize a piece of high ground on the Union left, with the view of turning that flank. This manoeuvre was, however, frustrated by the skill and promptitude of Colonel Cross of the Fifth New Hampshire (Caldwell's brigade), who, detecting the danger, moved his regiment towards the menaced point. Between his command and the Confederate force there then ensued a spirited contest—each endeavoring to reach the high ground, and both delivering their fire as they marched in parallel lines by the flank. Report of Richardson's division. (This report is made by General Hancock, who was assigned to the command on the field of Antietam-General Richardson having bee
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